Pediatrics is a relatively new medical specialty. Hippocrates, Aristotle, Celsus, Soranus, and Galen, understood the differences in growing and maturing organisms that necessitated different treatment “Ex toto non sic pueri ut viri curari debent. “ A 2nd century AD manuscript by the Greek physician and gynecologist Soranus of Ephesus dealt with neonatal pediatrics.  Byzantine physicians;Oribasius, Aetius of Amida, Alexander Trallianus, and Paulus Aegineta stand out for their contributions to child care.
 The Byzintines also built brephotrophia, “baby shelters,”or “children’s hospitals. “Islamic writers served as a bridge for Greco-Roman and Byzantine medicine and added ideas of their own especially Haly Abbas, Serapion, Rhazes, Avicenna, and Averroes, The Persian scholar and doctor al-Razi (865–925) published a short treatise on diseases among children.  The first printed book on pediatrics was in Italian (1472) – Bagallarder’s Little Book on Disease in Children. Paulus Bagellardus a Flumine (d. 1492) De Infantium Aegritudinibus et Remediis 1472, Bartolomaeus Metlinger (d.1491).
Ein Regiment der Jungerkinder 1473, Cornelius Roelans (1450-1525) no title Buchlein, or Latin compendium, 1483, and Heinrich von Louffenburg (1391-1460) Versehung des Leibs written 1429 published 1491. together form the Pediatric Incunabula, four great medical treatises on children’s physiology and pathology. Pediatrics as a specialized field of medicine developed in the mid-19th century; Abraham Jacobi (1830–1919) is known as the father of pediatrics because of his many contributions to the field.  He was born in Germany, where he received his medical training, but later practiced in New York City.