Pathology and Pharmacology

Pathophysiology
The study of the disorder/ breakdown of human body’s function

Enteral route
Administering drugs via mouth

Topical route
Administering drugs via skin

Rectal route
Administering drugs via rectum

Parenteral route
Administering drugs via injection or infusion

Homeostasis
The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements

Etiology
Reason for event

Introgenic
Intended effect of a medical treatment

Idiopathic
Any condition that arises spontaneously or for which the cause is unknown; used with unexpected drug effects

Pathogenesis
Development/evolution of a disease

Passive transport types
Diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion

Active transport
Movement that uses energy

Endocytosis (2 types)
Phagocytosis; pinocytosis

Phagocytosis
Cell ingests/engulfs a solid particle

Pinocytosis
Cell ingests/engulfs a liquid

Apoptosis
Cell death, programmed suicide

Ischemia
Inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body

Necrosis

Free radical

Neoplasia
New growth; lacks control and regulation

Metaplasia

Carcinogenisis

Intravenous injection
Injection into the vein (ex. chemo drugs)

Subcutaneous injection
Injection under the skin (ex. TB test)

Intramuscular injection
Injection into the muscle (ex. flu vaccine)

Loading dose

Dysplasia

Hyperplasia

Hypertrophy

Atrophy

Three types of nursing goals/treatment types
Curative, palliative, prophylactic

Curative treatment

Palliative treatment

Prophylactic treatment

1st line of immune defense
Physical barriers; mucous membranes, skin,

2nd line of immune defense

3rd line of immune defense

Efficacy
The maximal response that can be produced from a drug

Fragile X

Turner’s Syndrome

Klienflelter’s Syndrome

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

OTC medication
Over the counter medication

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