Paramedic Pharmacology

What is the class of Activated Charcoal?
Absorbent

What is the MOA of Activated Charcoal
Absorbs Toxic substances from the gastrointestinal tract.

What are the Indications for Activated Charcoal
Most oral poisonings, and medication overdoses; can be sued after evacuation of poisons

What is the adult dose of Activated Charcoal
1 to 2 g/kg PO or Nasogastric tube

What else is Adenosine know as?
Adenocard

What is the class of Adenosine?
Antidysrhythmic

What is the MOA of Adenosine?
Slows conduction through the AV node; can interrupt re-entrant pathways; slows heart rate by acting directly on the sinus pacemaker cells by slowing impulse formation. The drug of choice for re-entry SVT. Can be used diagnostically for stable, wide-complex tachycardia of unkown orgin after two doses of lidocaine.

What are the Indications for Adenosine?
Conversion of PSVT to sinus rhythm. May convert re-entry SVT. not effective in convertin atrial Fibrillation or flutter or V-tach. Most forms of stable narrow complex SVT

What is the adult dose for Adenosine?
First dose is 6mg, Second dose 12mg. Both rapid IV push followed by 20ml saline flush

Albuterol is also known as?
Proventil, and Ventolin

What is the class of Albuterol?
Sympathomimetic, Bronchodilator

What is the MOA of Albuterol?
Selective Beta-2 agonist that stimulates adrenergic receptors of the sympathomimetic nervous system. Results in smooth-muscle relaxation in the bronchial tree and peripheral Vasculature.

What are the Indications of Albuterol?
Treatment of bronchospasm in patients with reversible COPD or Asthma. Prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm

What is the Adult Dose of Albuterol?
Administer 2.5mg. Dilute in 0.5 ML of 0.5% solution for inhalation with 2.5mL normal saline in nebulizer. Administer over 10-15 min.
Metered dose inhaler 1-2 inhalations.

Alteplase, Recumbiant is of what Class?
Fibrinolytic

What is the MOA of Alteplase?
The enzyme binds to the Fibrin-bound plasminogen at the clot site, converting plasmingen to plasmin. Plasmin digests the fibrin strands of the clot, restoring perfusion.

What are the Indications for Alteplase?
Acute Myocardial infartcion, STEMI, massive pulmonary emboli, acute ischemic cerebrovascular accident.

What is the adult dose of Alteplase?
15mg IV bolus over 2 minutes; Then 0.75 mg/kg over 30min (do not exceed 50mg)

What is Amiodarone also known as?
Cardarone, Pacerone

What is the class of Amiodarone?
Antidysrhythmic

What is the MOA of Amiodarone?
Blocks sodium channels and myocardial potassium channels, delaying repolarization and increasing the duration of action potential

What are the indications of Amiodarone?
Ventricular fibrillation, pulseless ventricular tachycardia, unstable ventricular thacycardia in patients refractory other therapy

What is the adult dose of Amiodarone?
Ventricular fibrillation/pulselsss ventricular tachycardia unresponsive to CPR, defibrillation, and vasopressors: 300mg IV/IO push. Initial dose can be followed by 150mg push after 3-5 minutes.

What is the class of Amyl Nitrite?
Antidote, cyanide poisoning adjunct

What is the MOA of Amyl Nitrite?
Converts hemoglobin to methemolobin, which reacts with cyanide and chemically binds with it, preventing any toxic effects

What are the indications of Amyl Nitrite?
Cyanide poisoining

What is the adult dose of Amyl Nitrite?
1-2 ampules crushed and inhaled for 30 seconds untill sodium nitrite is prepared or administ3er for 30-60 seconds every 5 minutes until patient is conscious.

Aspirin is also known as?
ASA, Bayer, Ecotrin, St. Joseph

What is the class of Aspirin?
Platelet inhibitor, anti-inflammatory

What is the MOA of Aspirin?
Prevents platelets from clumping together, or aggregating and forming emboli

What are the indications of Aspirin?
New onset chest pain suggestive of acute myocardial infarction.

What is the adult dose of Aspirin?
160mg-325mg tablets.

What is Atenolol also known as?
Tenormin

What is the class of Atenolol
Beta blocker (beta-1 selective), antidysrhythimc

What is the MOA of Atenolol?
Decreses heart rate, moyocardial contractility, and cardiac output. Inhibits dilation of bronchial smooth muscle

What are the indications of Atneolol?
To reduce myocardial ischemia and damage in acute myocardial infarction patients; paroxysmal SVT, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, hypertension

What is the adult dose of Atenolol?
5mg slow IV push over 5min. Wait 10 minutes, give second dose of 5mg over 5min.

What is the class of Atropine Sulfate?
Anticholinergic agent

What is the MOA of Atropine Sulfate?
Inhibits the action of acetylcholine at postganglionic parasympathetic neuroeffector sites. Increases heart rate in life-threatening bradydsrhythmias.

What are the indications of Atropine Sulfate?
Hemodynamically unstable bradycardia, organophosphate poisoning, nerve agent exposure, rapid sequence intubation in pediatrics, beta blocker calcium channel blocker overdose

What is the adult dose of Atropine Sulfate?
Unstable Bradycardia: 0.5mg IV/IO every 3-5 min as needed. Do not exceed 3mg total.

What is Benzocaine Spray also known as?
Hurricane?

What is the class of Bensocaine spray?
Topical anesthetic

What is the MOA of Bensocaine spray?
Stabilizes neuronal membrane, which blocks the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses.

What are the indications of bensocaine spray?
Used as a lubricant and topical anesthetic to facilitate passage of diagnostic and treatment devices. Suppresses the pharyngeal and tracheal gag reflex.

What is the adult dose of Bensocaine spray?
0.5-1 second spray, repeat as needed.

What is Bumetanide also known as?
Bumex

What is the class of Bumetanide?
Loop Diuretic

What is the MOA of Bumetanide?
A potent loop diuretic with a rapid onset and short duration of action. Inhibits the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the ascending limb from the loop of Henle.

What are the indications of Bumetanide?
Pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure

What is the adult dose of Bumetanide?
0.5 – 1mg IV slowly over 1-2 minutes, or IM

What is the class of Calcium Chloride?
Electrolyte (anion)

What is the MOA of Calcium Chloride?
Increases cardiac contractile state (positive inotropic effect). May enhance ventricular automaticity

What are the indications of Calcium Chloride?
Hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia, beta blocker and calcium channel blocker toxicity

What is the adult dose of Calcium Chloride?
Calcium schannel blocker overdose and hyper kalemia: 500mg – 1000 mg (5-10mL of 10% solution) IV push.

What is Clopidogrel also known as?
Plavix

What is the class of Clopidogrel?
Thienopyridine Anti-platelet

What is the MOA of Clopidogrel?
Inhibits platelet aggregation by blocking activation of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex

What are the indications for Clopidogrel?
ST elevations MI (STEMI), moderate to high risk non-ST elevations MI (NSTEMI), acute coronary syndrome, substitute for aspirin in patients unable to take aspirin.

What is the adult dose of Clopidogrel?
Loading dose of 300-600mg

What is Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate also known as?
Decadron

What is the class of Dexamethasone?
Corticosteroid, adrenal glucocorticoid

What is the MOA of Dexamethasone?
Suppresses acute and chronic inflammation; immunosuppressive effect

What are the indications of Dexamethasone?
Anaphylaxis, asthma, spinal cord injury, croup, elevated intracranial pressure (prevention and treatment), as an adjunt in the treatment of shock.

What is the adult dose of Dexamethasone?
10-100mg IV (1mg/kg slow IV bolus)

What is the class of Dextrose?
Carbohydrate, antihypoglycemic

What is the MOA of Dextrose?
Rapidly increases serum glucose levels. Short term osmotic diuresis

What are the indications for Dextrose?
Hypoglycemia, altered level of consciousness, coma of unknown origin, seizure of unknown origin, status epilepticus

What is the adult dose of Dextrose?
12.5-25g of a 50% solution slow IV push. May be repeated if necessary.

What is Diazepam also known as?
Valium

What is the class of Diazepam?
Benzodiazepine, Long-acting; sedative-hypnotic; anticonvulsant; schedule IV drug

What is the MOA of Diazepam?
Potentiates effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters. Raises the seizure threshold. Induce amnesia and sedation.

What are the indications of Diazepam?
Acute anxiety states and agitation, acute alcohol withdrawal, muscle relaxant, seizure activity, sedation for medical procedures (intubation, ventilated patients, cardioversion), may be helpful in acute symptomatic cocaine overdose.

What is the adult dose of Diazepam?
Seizure activity 5-10mg IV, 10-15 PRN with max dose of 30mg.
Pre-cardiovert – 5-15mg IV 5-10 minutes prior to cardioversion

What is Digoxin also known as?
Lanoxin

What is the class of Digoxin?
Inotropic agent, cardiac glycoside.

What is the MOA of Digoxin?
Rapid-acting cardiac glycoside with direct and indirect effects: Increases force of myocardial contraction, increases refractory period of AV node, and increases total peripheral resistance.

What are the indications of Digoxin?
CHF, re-entry SVTs, ventricular rate control in atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation.

What is the adult dose of Digoxin?
Loading dose 4-6micrograms/kg over 5min. Second and third dose 2-3 micrograms/kg to follow at 4-5 hour intervals

What is Diltiazem also known as?
Cardizem

What is the class of Diltiazem?
Calcium channel blocker, antidysrhythmic

What is the MOA of Diltiazem?
Slow calcium channel blocker that locks calcium ion influx during depolarization of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. Decrease in vascular smooth muscle results in a decreasing in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Reduces preload and afterload, reduces myocardial oxygen demand.

What are the indications of Diltiazem?
Controls rapid ventricular rates due to atrial fibrillation flutter, and re-entry supraventricular tachycardia

What is the adult dose of Diltiazem?
initial dose: 0.25 mg/kg (15-20mg for average pts) IV over 2 mins.

What is Diphenhydramine also known as?
Benadryl

What is the class of diphenhydramine?
Antihistamine, anticholinergic

What is the MOA of Diphenhydramine?
Blocks cellular histamine receptors; decreases vasodilation; decreases motion sickness. Reverses extrapyramidal reactions.

What are the indications of Diphenhydramine?
Symptomatic relief of allergies, allergic reactions, and anaphylaxis. Blood administration reactions; used for motions sickness and hay fever, relief of acute dystonic reaction cause d by phenothiazines; may be useful in phenothiazine overedoses

What is the adult dose of Diphenhydramine?
25-50mg IM, IV, PO.

What is Dobutamine Hydrochloride also known as?
Dobutrex

What is the class of Dobutamine?
Sympathomimetic, Inotropic agent

What is the MOA of Dobutamine?
Synthetic catecholamine. Increased myocardial contractility, stroke volume, and increased cardiac output. Minimal chronotropic activity. Increases renal blood flow

What are the Indications for Dobutamine?
Cardiogenic schock, CHF, Left ventricular dysfunction, often used in conjunction with other drugs

What is the adult dose of dobutamine?
IV infusion at 2-20 micrograms/kg/min titrated to desired effect.

Dolastron is also known as?
Anzemet

What is the class of Dolastron?
Serotonin receptor antagonist, antiemetic

What is the MOA of Dolastron?
Selectively blocks the actoin of serotonin, a natural substance that causes nausea and vomiting.

What are the indications of Dolastron?
For the prevention and control of nausea or vomiting. Used in-hospital for patients undergoing chemotherapy or surgical procedures.

What is the adult dose of Dolastron?
12.5 mg IV one time, or 100mg PO one time

Dopamine Hydrochloride is also known as?
Intropin

What is the class of Dopamine?
Sympathomimetic, vasopressor, inotropic agent

What is the MOA of Dopamine?
Immediate metabolic precursor to nor-epi. Produces positive inotropic and chronotropic effects. Dilates renal and splanchnic vasculature. Constricts systemic vasculature, increasing blood pressure and preload. Increases myocardial contractility and stroke volume.

What are the Indications for Dopamine?
Cardogenic and septic shock, hypotension with low cardiac output states, distributive shock, second-line drug for symptomatic bradycardia.

What is the adult dose for Dopamine?
IV/IO infusion at 2-20 micrograms/kg/min, slowly titrated to patient response.

Epinephrine is also known as?
Adrenaline

What is the class of Epi?
Sympathomimetic

What is the MOA of Epi?
Direct-acting alpha and beta agonist. Alpha: vasoconstriction. Beta-1: positive inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotrpic effects. Beta-2: bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and dilation of skeletal vasculature. Blocks histamine receptors.

What are the indications of Epi?
cardiac arrest, symptomatic bradycardia as an alternative infusion to dopamine, sever hypotension secondary to bradycardia when atropine and transcutaneious pacing are unsuccessful, allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, asthma

What is the adult dose of Epi?
Mild allergic reactoins and asthma: 0.3-0.5mg (0.3-0.5mL 1:1,000) SC, Anaphylaxis: 0.1mg (1mL 1:10,000) IV, Cardiac Arrest: IV/IO 1mg (10mL 1:10,000) every 3-5 minutes during resuscitatoin. Follow each dose with 20mL fluid bolus.

Epinephrine Racemic is also known as?
Micronefrin

The class of Epi-Racemic is?
Sympathomimetic

The MOA of Epi-Racemic is?
Stimulates beta-2 receptors in lungs; bronchodilation with relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. Reduces airway resistance. Useful in treating laryngeal edema; inhibits histamine release.

What are the indications of Epi-Racemic?
Bronchial asthma, prevention of bronchospasm, croup, laryngotracheobronchitis, laryngeal edema.

what is the adult dose of Epi-Racemic?
MDI: 2-3 inhalations repeated every 5 minutes PRN. Solution: dilute 5mL (1%) in 5mL saline, administer over 15min via nebulizer.

Eptifibatide is also known as?
Integrilin

What is the class of Eptifibatide?
Glcoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, platelet aggregations inhibitor

What is the MOA of Eptifibatide?
Prevents the aggregation of platelets by binding to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, preventing the binding of fibrogen and von Willebrand factors

What are the indications of Eptifibatide?
Unstable angina and NSTEMI (ACS) being managed medically. Patients undergoing percuaneous coronary intervention.

What is the adult dose of Eptifibatide?
180 micrograms/kg IV bolus over 1-2min, followed by 2 micrograms/kg infusion for 72-96hours.

Etomidate is also known as?
Amidate

What is the class of Etomidate?
Nonbarbiturate hypnotic, anethesia induction agent

What is the MOA of Etomidate?
Short acting hypnotic that acts at the level of the reticular activating system

What are the indications for Etomidate?
Premedication for tracheal intubation or cardioversion

What is the adult dose for Etomidate?
0.2-0.6 mg/kg IV over 30-60 seconds. (average adult dose is 20mg)

Fentanyl Citrate is also known as?
Sublimaze

What is the Class of Fentanyl Citrate?
Opioid analgesic, schedule II narcotic

What is the MOA of Fentanyl Citrate?
Binds to opiate receptors, producing analgesia and euphoria.

What are the indications of Fentanyl Citrate?
Pain management, anesthesia ajunct

What is the adult dose of Fentanyl Citrate?
50-100 micrograms (1microgram/kg) IM or IV, IO slow push over 1-2 minutes. max dose of 150 micrograms.

Flumazenil is also known as?
Romazicon

What is the class of Flumazenil?
Benzodiazepine antagonist, antidote

What is the MOA of Flumazenil?
Antagonizes the action of benzodiazepines on the central nervous system, reversing the sedative effects.

What are the indications of Flumazenil?
Reversal of respiratory depression and sedative effects from pure benzodiazepine overdose.

What is the adult dose of Flumazenil?
First dose 0.2 mg IV/IO over 15 seconds, Second dose 0.3mg, if no response give 0.5mg, if no response repeat every minute until adequate response or total of 3mg is given.

Fosphenytoin is also known as?
Cerebyx

What is the class of Fosphenytoin?
Hydantoin anticonvulsant.

What is the MOA of Fosphenytoin?
Modulates voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels of neurons, inhibits calcium flux across neuronal membranes. Also selectively elevates the excitability threshold of the cell reducing its response to stimuli.

What are the indications of Fosphenytoin?
Status epilepticus, seizure disorder.

What is the adult dose of Fosphenytoin?
Loading dose of 10-20mg PE/KG IM, IV one time to maximum of 150 mg PE/min IV

Furosemide is also known as?
Lasix

What is the class of Furosemide?
Loop diuretic

What is the MOA of Furosemide?
Blocks the absorption of sodium and chloride at the distal and proximal tubules and the loop of Henle, causing increased urine output.

What are the indications of Furosemide?
CHF, Pulmonary edema, hypertensive crisis

What is the adult dose of Furosemide?
0.5-1mg/kg IV over 1-2 minutes if no response double the dose.

Glucagon is also known as?
GlucaGen

What class is Glucagon?
Hyperglycemic agent, pancreatic hormone, insulin antagonist

What is the MOA of Glucagon?
Increses blood glucose level by stimulating glycogenesis. Unknown mechanism of stabilizing cardiac rhythm in beta blocker overdose. Minimal positive inotropic and chronotropic response. Decreases gastrointestinal motility and secrestions

What are the indications of Glucagon?
Altered level of consciousness when hypoglycemia is suspected. May be used as a reversal agent in beta blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose.

What is the adult dose of Glucagon?
Hypoglycemia: 0.5-1mg IM may repeat in 7-10 min.
Calcium Channel Blocke or beta blocker OD: 3-10mg IV slowly over 3-5min initally.

What is Haloperidol Lactate also known as?
Haldol

What is the class of Haloperidol?
Tranquilizer, antipsychotic

What is the MOA of Haloperidol?
Inhibits teh CNS catecholamine receptors: strong antidopaminergic and weak anticholinergic. Acts on CNS to depress subcortical areas, mid-brain, and ascending reticular activating system in the brain.

What are the indications of Haloperidol?
Acute psychotic episodes

What is the adult dose of Haloperidol?
2-5mg IM ONLY every 30-60 minutes until sedation is achieved

What is the class of Heparin Sodium
Anticoagulant

What is the MOA of Heparin?
Prevents conversion of fibrogen to gibrin. Affects clotting factors IX,XI, XII, plasmin. Does not lyse existing clots.

What are the indications of Heparin?
Acute myocardial infarction, prophylaxis and treatment of thromboemolic disorders (PE and Deep Venous Thrombosis)

What is the adult dose of Heparin?
IV bolus of 60 U/kg max of 4,000 IU (weight adjusted)

Hydrocortisone Sodium Succcinate is also known as?
Solu-Cortef

Hydrocortisone is in what class?
Adrenal glucocorticoid

What is the MOA of Hydrocortisone?
Anti-inflammatory; immunosuppressive with salt-retaining actions

What are the indications of Hydrocortisone?
Shock due to acute adrenocortical insufficiency, anaphylaxis, asthma and COPD

What is the adult dose of Hydrocortisone?
4mg/kg slow IV bolus

Hydroxocobalamin is also known as?
Cyanokit

What is the class of Hydroxocobalamin?
Antidote, cyanide poisoning adjunct

What is the MOA of Hydroxocoblamin?
Binds with cyanide to form nontoxic cyanocobalamin, preventing its toxic effects; excreted renally

What are the indications of Hydroxocoblamin?
Treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning

What is the adult dose of Hyroxocoblamin?
5mg IV infusion over 15minutes at a rateof 15mL/min, one time, may be repeated one time at same dose to a max of 10g

Hydroxyzine is also known as?
Atarax, Vistaril

What is the class of Hydroxyzine?
Antihistamine, antiemetic, antianxiety agent, anxiolytic

What is the MOA of Hydroxyzine?
Potentiates effects of analgesics. Calming effect without impairing mental alertness. Rapid-acting true ataraxic with probable action of suppressing activity in key locations of the CNS subortical area. Exerts bronchodilationg, antispasmodic, antihitaminic, analgesic, and antiemetic effects

What are the indications of Hydroxyzine?
Potentiates the effects of analgesics. Controls nausea and vomiting in anxiety reactions and motion sickness; preoperative and postoperative sedation

What is the adult dose of Hydroxyzine?
25-100mg IM ONLY

Insulin is in what class?
Antidiabetic, hormone

What is the MOA of Insulin?
Allows glucose transport into cells of all tissues; converts glycogen to fat; produces intracellular shift of potassium and magnesium to reduce elevated serum levels of these electrolytes

What are the indications for Insulin?
Not used in emergency prehopital setting. Diabetic ketoacidosis or other hyperglycemic state, hyperkalemia, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma

What is the adult dose of Insulin?
Dosage is adjusted to personal BGL. Standard doses for diabetic coma: 10-25 units SC, IM, or IV, followed by infusion of 0.1 units/kg/h

Ipratropium is also known as?
Atrovent

What is the class of Ipratropium?
Anticholinergic, bronchodilator

What is the MOA of Ipratropium?
Inhibits interaction of acetylcholine at receptor sites of bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in decreased cyclic guanosine monophosphate and bronchodilation

What are the Indications of Ipratopium?
Persistent bronchospasm, COPD exacerbation.

What is the adult dose of Ipratopium?
250-500 micrograms via inhalation with nebulizer.

Isoetharine is also known as?
Bronchosol, Bronkometer

What is the class of Isoetharine?
Sympathomimetic

What is the MOA of Isoetharine?
Beta-2 agonist; relaxes smooth muscle of bronchioles

What are the Indications of Isoetharine?
Acute bronchial asthma, bronchospasm (especially in COPD patients)

What is the adult dose of Isoetharine?
1-2 inhalations with MDI: COPD: 2.5-5mg diluted in 3mL normal saline and nebulized

Ketorolac Tromethamine is also known as?
Toradol

What is the class of Ketorolac Tromethamine?
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammitory (NSAID) analgesic

What is the MOA of Ketorolac Tromethamine?
Potent analgesic that dose not possess any sedative or anxiolytic activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis

What are the indications of Ketorolac Tromethamine?
Short-term manageme3nt of moderate to sever pain.

What is the adult dose of Ketorolac Tromethamine?
30-60mg IM

Labetalol is also known as?
Normodyne, Trandate

What is the class of Labetalol?
Selective alpha and non-selective beta-adrenergic blocker, antihypertensive

What is the MOA of Labetalol?
Blood pressure reduction without reflex tachycardia; total peripheral resistance reduced without significant alteration in cardiac output

What are the indications of Labetalol?
Moderate to severe hypertension

What is the adult dose of Labetalol?
10mg IV push over 1-2 min. May repeat or double every 10minutes to a max dose of 150mg

Levalbuterol is also known as?
Xopenex

What is the class of Levalbuterol?
Sympathomimetic, bronchodilator

What is the MOA of Levalbuterol?
Stimulates beta-2 receptroos resulting in smooth muscle relaxation of bronchial tree and peripheral vasculature

What are the indications of Levalbuterol?
Treatmetn for acute bronchospasm in patients with reversable COPD/asthma. Bronchospasm prophylaxis in asthma patients

What is the adult dose of Levalbuterol?
1.25mg to 2.5mg in 3mL saline via nebulizer. Max of 3 doses

Lidocaine Hydrochloride is also known as?
Xylocaine

What is the class of Lidocaine Hyrdrochloride?
Antidysrhythmic

What is the MOA of Lidocaine Hydrochloride?
Decreses automaticity by slowing the rate of spontaneous phase 4 depolarization

What are the indications of Lidocaine Hydrochloride?
Alternative to amiodarone in cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillations, stable wide-complex tachycardia with noremal baseline QT interval, stable monomorphic VT with preserved ventricular function.

What is the adult dose of Lidocaine Hydrochloride?
Cardiac Arrest initial dose 1-1.5 mg/kg IV/IO. Repeat dose 0.5-0.75 mg/kg IV/IO repeated 5-10minutes. Max dose 3mg/kg

Lorazepam is also known as?
Ativan

What is the class of Lorazepam?
Benzodiazepine, short/intermediate acting; sedative anticonvulsant, schedule IV drug

What is the MOA of Lorazepam?
Anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effect; supresses propagation of seizure activity produced by foci in cortex, thalmus, and limbic areas

What are the indications of Lorazepam?
Initial control of status epilepticus or severe recurrent seizures, severe anxiety, sedation.

What is the adult dose of Lorazepam?
When given IV or IO must be diluted with equal volume saline. Do not dilute when given IM. 2-4mg slow. Repeated 15-20 with max dose of 8mg

What is the class of Magnesium Sulfate?
Electrolyte, anti-inflammatory

What is the MOA of Mag-Sulfate?
Redues striated muscle contractions and blocks peripheral neuromuscular transmission by reducing acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction. Manages seizures in toxemia of pregnancy. Indues uterine relaxation. Can cause bronchodilation after beta-agonists and anti-cholinergics have been administered.

What are the indications of Mag-Sulfate?
Seizures of eclampsia, torsades de pointes, hpomagnesaemia, ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia that is refractory to amiodarone, life-threatening dysrhythmias due to digitalis toxicity

What is the adult dose of Mag-Sulfate?
Seizure activity associated with pregnancy 1-4g of 10% solutions IV/IO over 3 minutes; max dose of 30-40g/day.
Cardiac Arrest due to hypomagnesaemia or torsades de pointes: 1-2g of 10% solution IV/IO over 5-20minutes.

Mannitol is also known as?
Osmitrol

What is the class of Mannitol?
Osmotic diuretic

What is the MOA of Mannitol?
Promotes the movement of fluid from the intracellular space to the extracellular space. Decreases cerebral edema and intracranial pressure. Promotes urinary excretion of toxins

What are the indications of Mannitol?
Cerebral edema, reduced intracranial pressure for certain cause, rhabdomyolysis, blood transfusion reactions

What is the adult dose of Mannitol?
0.5-1g/kg IV infusion over 5-10min. Additional doses of 0.25-2g/kg can be given every 4-6 hours for diuretic effect. 3-8 hours for reduction of intracranial pressure

Meperidine Hydrochloride is also known as?
Demerol

What is the class of Meperidine Hydrochloride?
Opioid analgesic, schedule II drug

What is the MOA of Meperidine Hydrochloride?
Synthetic opioid analgesic whose effects on the central nervous system and smooth muscle organs are similar to morphine, primarily acting as an analgesic and a sedative

What are the indications of Meperidine Hydrochloride?
Analgesia for moderate to severe pain.

What is the adult dose of Meperidine Hydrochloride?
50-100mg IM,SC 25-50mg slow IV

Metaproterenol Sulfate is also known as?
Alupent

What is the class of Metaproterenol Sulfate?
Beta-2 adrenergic agonist bronchodilator

What is the MOA of Metaproterenol Sulfate?
Acts directly on the bronchial smooth muscle causing relaxation of the bronchial tree and peripheral vasculature.

What are the indications of Metaproterenol Sulfate?
Bronchial asthma, reversible bronchospasm secondary to bronchitis, COPD

What is the adult dose of Metaproterenol Sulfate?
MDI: 2-3 inhalations 3-4 hours (2min between inhalations)
Neb: 0.2-0.3mL of a 5% solution diluted in 2.5mL saline

Methyperdnisolone Sodium Succinate is also known as?
Solu-Medrol

What is the class of Solu-Medrol?
Corticosteroid

What is the MOA of Solu-Medrol?
Highly potent synthetic glucocorticoid that suppresses acute and chronic inflammation; potentiates vascular smooth muscle relaxation beta-adrenergic agonists

What are the indications for Solu-Medrol?
Acute spinal cord trauma, anaphylaxis, bronchodialtor for unresponsive asthma.

What is the adult dose of Solu-medrol?
Spinal cord trauma; 30mg/kg IV over 30minutes
Asthma, COPD, Anaphylaxis: 1-2mg/kg IV

Metoprolol Tartrate is also known as?
Lopressor

What is the class of Metoprolol Tartrate?
Beta blocker, beta-selective, antihypertensive, antidysrhythmic

What is the MOA of Metoprolol Tartrate?
Decreases heart rate, conduction velocity, myocardial contractility, and caridac output. Used to control SVT. Considered second line agent after adenosine, diltiazem, or digitalis derivative

What are the indications for Metoprolol Tartrate?
PSVT, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, reduces myocardial ischemia and damage in patients with AMI.

What is the adult dose of Metoprolol Tartrate?
5mg slow IV push at 5min intervals max dose of 15mg

What is Midazolam Hydrochloride also known as?
Versed

What is the class of Midazolam?
Benzodiazepine, short/intermediate acting; schedule IV drug

What is the MOA of Midazolam?
Reversibly interacts with gamma-amino butryic acid (GABA) receptors in the CNS causing sedative, anxiolytic, amnesic, and hypnotic effects

What are the indications of Midazolam?
Sedation for medical procedures

What is the adult dose of Midazolam?
2-2.5mg slow IV over 2-3 minutes. May be repeated to total max of 0.1/kg

Morphine Sulfate is also known as?
Roxanol, MS Contin

What is the Class of Morphine?
Opioid analgesic, schedule II narcotic

What is the MOA of Morphine?
Alleviates pain through CNS action. Suppresses fear and anxiety centers in the brain. Depresses brainstem respiratory centers. Increses peripheral venous capacitance and decreases venous return. Decreases preload and afterload, which decreases myocardial oxygen demand.

What are the indications of Morphine?
Severe CHF, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, chest pain associated with acute myocardial infarction, analgesia for moderate to severe acute and chronic pain

What is the adult dose of Morphine?
STEMI: Initial dose of 2-4mg slow IV. Repeat dose 2-8mg at 5-15 minute intervals. NSTEMI/Unstable angina. 1-5 mg IV push if symptoms not relieved by nitrates, use with caution.

Nalbuphine Hydrochloride is also known as?
Nubain

What is the class of Nalbuphine?
Synthetic opioid agonist/antagonist

What is the MOA of Nalbuphine?
Activates opiate receptor in limbic system of the CNS. Analgesic similar to Morphine on a milligram for milligram basis. Agonist and antagonist properties. May be preferred for chest pain in setting of acute MI because it reduces the myocardial oxygen demand without reducing the blood pressure.

What are the indications of Nalbuphine?
Chest pain associated with acute MI, moderate to severe acute pain.

What is the adult dose of Nalbuphine?
2-5mg slow IV. my repeat 2mg dose PRN to max dose of 10mg.

Naloxone Hydrochloride is also known as?
Narcan

What is the class of Naloxone?
Opioid antagonist, antidote

What is the MOA of Naloxone?
Competitive inhibition at narcotic receptor sites Reverses respiratory depression secondary to opiate drugs. Completely inhibits the effect of morphine

What are the indications of Naloxone?
Opiate overdose

What is the adult dose of Naloxone?
0.4-2mg IM/IV/IO/SQ/ET/Intranasal. May repeat dose every 5min up to 10mg

What is Nifedipine also known as?
Procardia, Adalat

What is the class of Nifedipine?
Calcium channel blocker

What is the MOA of Nifedipine?
Inhibits movement of calcium ions across cell membranes; calcium channel blocker; arterial and venous vasodilator; reduces preload and afterload; prevents coronary artery spasm and decreases total peripheral resistance; reduces myocardial oxygen demand; does not prolong AV nodal conduction

What are the indications of Nifedipine?
Hypertensive crisis, angina pectoris

What is the adult dose of Nifedipine?
10mg SL or Buccal. May repeat every 30min

Nitroglycerin is also known as?
Nitrostat, nitro-bid, tridil

What is the class of Nitro?
Vasodilator

What is the MOA of Nitro?
Smooth muscle relaxant acting on vasculature, bronchial, uterine, intestinal smooth muscle. Dilation of arterioles and veins in the periphery. Reduces preload and afterload, decreasing workload of the heart and therby myocardial oxygen demand.

What are the indications of Nitro?
Acute angina pectoris, ischemic chest pain, hypertension, CHF, pulmonary edema

What is the adult dose of Nitro?
Tablet: 0.3-0.4 mg sublingually; may repeat in 5 minutes to max of 3 doses.
Spray: 1-2 sprays for 0.5-1 second at 5 minute intervals to a max of 3 sprays in 15 minutes.

What class is Nitropaste?
Vasodilator

What is the MOA of Nitropaste?
Smooth muscle relaxant acting on vasculature, bronchial, uterine, intestinal smooth muscle. Dilation of arterioles and veins in the periphery. Reduces preload and afterload, decreasing workload of the heart and thereby myocardial oxygen demand.

What are the indication of Nitropaste?
Acute angina pectoris, chest pain associated with AMI, hypertension, CHF, pulmonary edema

What is the adult dose of Nitropaste?
Paste: apply 1/2″ to 3/4″ (1-2cm), 15-30mg, cover with wrap and secure with tape. Max dose of 5″ per application.
Transdermal: apply unit to intact skin (chest wall) in varying doses

Norepinephrine Bitartrate is also known as?
Levophed, Nor-epi

What is the class of Nor-epi?
Sympathomietic, vasopressor

What is the MOA of Nor-epi?
Potent alpha-agonist resulting in intense peripheral vasoconstriction, positive chronotropic and increased inotropic effect (from 10% beta effect) with increased cardiac output. Alpha-adrenergic activity resulting in peripheral vasoconstriction and beta-adrenergic activity resulting in peripheral vasoconstriction and beta-adrenergic activity leading to inotropic stimulation of the heart and coronary artery vasodilation.

What are the indications of Nor-epi?
Cardiogenic shock, unresponsive to fluid resuscitation, significant hypotensive states.

What is the adult dose of Nor-epi?
Diluted 8mg in 500mL of D5W or 4mg in 250mL of D5W. Infuse by IV piggyback at 0.1-0.5 Micrograms/kg/min titrated to response.

Nitrous Oxide is also known as?
Nitronox

What is the class of Nitrous Oxide?
Gaseous analgesic and anesthetic

What is the MOA of NItrous Oxide?
Exact mechanism unknown; affects central nervous system phospholipids

What are the indications of Nitrous Oxide?
Moderate to sever pain, anxiety, apprehension

What is the adult dose of Nitrous Oxide?
Instruct the patient to inhale deeply through demand valve and mask or mouthpiece

What is Ondansetron Hydrochloride also known as?
Zofran

What is the class of Ondansetron?
Serotonin receptor antagonist; antiemetic

What is the MOA of Ondansetron?
Blocks action of serotonin, which is a natural substance that causes nausea and vomiting

What are the indications for Ondansetron?
For the prevention and control of nausea of vomiting. Used in hospital for patients undergoing chemotherapy or surgical procedures.

What is the adult dose of Ondansetron?
4mg IV/IM may repeat in 10minutes.

Oral Glucose in also known as?
Insta-Glucose

What is the class of Oral Glucose?
Hyperglycemic, carbohydrate

What is the MOA of Oral Glucose?
After absorption in the GI tract, glucose is distributed to the tissues providing an increase in circulating blood glucose levels.

What are the indications for Oral Glucose?
Conscious patients with suspected hypoglcemia

What is the adult dose for Oral Glucose?
15-45 g PO in patients with an intact gag reflex and the ability to manage their own secretions

What is the class of Oxygen?
naturally occurring atmospheric gas

What is the MOA of Oxygen?
Reverses hypoxemia

What are the indications for Oxygen?
confirmed or expected hypoxemia, ischemic chest pain, respiratory insufficiency, prophylactically during air transport, confirmed or suspected carbon monoxide poisoning, all other causes of decreased tissue oxygenation, decreased level of consciousness

What is the adult dose of Oxygen?
Cardiac arrest and crbon monoxide poisoning: 100%, jypoxemia: 10-15L/min via non-rebreather.
COPD: 0-2 L/min via nasal cannula or 28%-35% Venturi mask

Oxytocin is also known as
Pitocin

What is the class of Oxytocin?
Pituitary hormone

What is the MOA of Oxytocin?
Increases uterine contractions

What are the indications of Oxytocin?
Postpartum hemorrhage after infant and placental delivery

What is the adult dose of Oxytocin?
IM: 10 units folowing delivery of placenta
IV: mix 10-40 units in 1,000mL of nonhydrating diluent: infused at 20-40 milliunits/min. Titrated to severity of bleeding and uterine response

Pancoronium Bromide is also known as?
Pavulon

What is the class of Pancoronium Bromide?
Nondepolarizing neuromuscular mocker/paralytic

What is the MOA of Pancoronium Bromide?
Binds to the receptor for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction

What are the indications for Pancoronium Bromide?
Induction or maintenance of paralysis after intubation to assist ventialtions

What is the adult dose of Pancoronium Bromide?
0.06 to 0.1 mg/kg slow IV. Repeat every 30-60 minutes as needed.

What is Phenobarbital also known as?
Luminal

What is the class of Phenobarbital?
Barbiturate, long-acting, anticonvulsant; schedule IV drug.

What is the MOA of Phenobarbital?
Generally unknown but believed to reduce neuronal excitability by increasing the motor cortex threshold to electrical stimulation.

What are the indications for Phenobarbital?
Prevention and treatment of seizure activity, status epilepticus

What is the adult dose of Phenobarbital?
100-250mg slow IV or IM. May repeat as needed in 20-30 minutes.

Phenytoin is also known as?
Dilantin

What is the class of Phenytoin?
Anticonvulsant

What is the MOA of Phenytoin?
Promotes sodium efflux from neurons, thereby stabilizing the neuron’s threshold against the excitability caused by excess stimulation. In similar fashion, decreases abnormal ventricular automaticity and decreases the refractory period in teh myocardial conduction system.

What are the indications for Phenytoin?
Prophylaxis and treatment of major motor seizures, digitalis-indued dysrhythmias

What is the adult dose of Phenytoin?
Seizures: 10-20 mg/kg slow IV max of 1g or rate of 50mg/minute.
Dysrhythmias: 50-100 mg diluted slow IV every 5-15min PRN; Max dose of 1g

Pralidoxime is also known as?
2-PAM, Protopam

What is the class of Pralidoxime?
Cholinesterase reactivator, antidote

What is the MOA of Pralidoxime?
Reactivates cholinesterase to effectively act as an antidote to organphosphate and pesticide poisonings. This actions allows for destruction of accumulated actylcholine at eh neuromuscular junction resulting in reversal of respiratory paralysis and paralysis of skeletal muscle

What are the indications of Parlidoxime?
As and antidote in the treatment of poisoning by organophosphate pesticides and chemicals. Anticholinesterase overdoses

What is the adult dose of Parlidoxime?
Organophosphate Poisoning: inital dose of 1-2g as an IV infusion over 30-60 minutes after atropine administration; can be repeated in 1hr if paralysis is still present. 600mg IM repeat twice more at 15min intervals as needed.
Anticholinesterase Overdose: 1-2g as an IV infusion over 30-60min. Repeat at 250mg every 5min as needed

Procainamide Hydrochloride is also known as?
Pronestyl

What is the class of Procainamide?
Antidysrhythmic

What is the MOA of Procainamide?
Suppresses phase 4 depolarization in normal ventriular muscle and Purkinje Fibers, reducing ectopic pacemaker’s automaticity; suppresses intraventricular conduction.

What are the indications of Procainamide?
Stable monomorphic ventricular tachycardia with normal QT interval, reentry SVT uncontrolled by vagal maneuvers and adenosine, stable wide complex tachycardia of unknown orogin, a-fib with rapid ventricular rate in patients with Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome.

What is the adult dose of Procainamide?
recurrent V-fib/pulseless V-tach: 20mg/min slow IV infusion max dose of 17mg/kg. In urgent situation 50mg/min may ve administered.

Promethazine Hydrochloride is also known as?
Phenergan

What is the class of Promethazine?
Phenothiazine, antiemetic, antihistamine

What is the MOA of Promethazine?
H-1 Receptor antagonist; blocks action of histamine; possesses sedative, anti-motion, antiemetic, and anticholinergic activity; potentiates the effects of narcotics to induce analgesia

What are the indications of Promethazine?
Nausea/vomiting, motion sickness, sedation for patients in labor, potentiates the analgesic effects of narcotics

What is the adult dose of Promethazine?
12.5-25mg IV, Deep IM, PO

Propofol is also known as?
Diprivan

What is the class of Propofol?
Sedative hypnotic short-acting

What is the MOA of Propofol?
Produces rapid and brief state of general anesthesia

What are the indications for Propofol?
Anesthesia induction, anesthesia maintenance, sedation for mechanically ventilated patients

What is the adult dose of Propofol?
Induction dose: 1.5-3mg/kg IV/IO.
Maintenane infusion: 25-75 micrograms/kg/min IV/IO

What is Propranolol Hydrochloride also known as?
Inderal

What class is Propranolol?
Beta-adrenergic blocker

What is the MOA of Propranolol?
Nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker that reduces chronotropic, inotropic, and vasodiliator response to beta-adrenergic stimulation

What are the indications of Propranolol?
Hypertension, angina pectoris, ventricular tachycardia, V-fib refractory to lidocaine, selected SVT

What is the adult dose of Propranolol?
Dilute 1-3mg in 10-30mL of D5W. Administer slow IV at rate of 1mg/min with max dose of 5mg

Rocuronium Bromide is also known as?
Zemuron

What is the class of Rocuronium Bromide?
Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker

What is the MOA of Rocuronium Bromide?
Antagonizes acetylcholine at the motor end plate producing skeletal muscle paralysis

What are the indications of Rocuronium Bromide?
RSI, Rapid sequence intubation

What is the adult dose of Rocuronium Bromide?
0.6-1.2 mg/kg IV,IO

What class is Sodium Bicarbonate?
Systemic hydrogen ion buffer, alkalizing agent

What is the MOA of Sodium Bicarbonate?
Buffers metabolic acidosis and lactic acid buildup in the body caused by anaerobic metabolism secondary to severe hypoxia by reacting with hdrogen ions to form water and carbon dioxide.

What are the indications of Sodium Bicarbonate?
Metabolic aciosis during cardiac arrest, tricyclic antidepressant, aspirin, and phenobarbital overdose, hyperkalemia, crush injuries

What is the adult dose of Sodium Bicarbonate?
1 mEq/kg slow IV, IO push may repeat at 0.5 mEq/kg every 10minutes

What class is Sodium Nitrate?
Antidote cyanide poisoning adjunct

What is the MOA of Sodium Nitrate?
Reacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, which reacts with cyanide and chemically binds with it to prevent toxic effect

What are the indications of Sodium Nitrate?
Cyanide Poisoning

What is the adult dose of Sodium Nitrate?
300mg (10mL of a 3% solution) slow IV push over 5 minutes or dilute 300mg in 100mL of saline and infuse slowly

What class is Sodium Thiosulfate?
Cyanide Antidote

What is the MOA of Sodium Thiosulfate?
Converts cyanide to the less toxic thiocyanate, which is then excreted in the urine

What are the indications for Sodium Thiosulfate?
Cyanide Poisoning

What is the adult dose of Sodium Thiosulfate?
12.5g (50mL of a 25% solution) IV/IO slow push over 10 minutes.

Streptokinase is also known as?
Streptase

What class is Streptokinase?
Thrombolytic

What is the MOA of Streptokinase?
Combines with plasminogen to produce an activator complex that converts free plasminogen to proteolytic enzyme, plasmin. Plasmin degrades fibrin threads and fibrinogen, causing clot lysis

What are the indications of Streptokinase?
Acute evolving myocardial infarction, massive pulmonary emboli, arterial thromobosis and embolism, to clear intraventricular cannula

What is the adult dose of Streptokinase?
5000,000-1,5000,000 IU diluted to 45mL IV over 1 hour

Succinylcholine Chloride is also known as?
Anectine

What class is Succinylcholine Chloride?
Neuromuscular blocker, depolarizing; skeletal muscle relaxant

What is the MOA of Succinylcholine Chloride?
Ultra-short-acting depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant that mimics acetylcholine as it binds with the cholinergic receptors on the motor end plate, producing a phase 1 block as manifested by fasciculations

What are the indications of Succinylcholine Chloride?
Rapid-sequence intubation

What is the adult dose of Succinylcholine Chloride?
1-1.5 mg/kg rapid IV. Repeat once if needed

Terbutaline Sulfate is also known as?
Brethine

What is the class of Terbutaline Sulfate?
Beta-2 adrenergic agonist, bronchodilator

What is the MOA of Terbutaline Sulfate?
Selective beta-2 adrenergic receptor activity resulting in relaxation of smooth muscle of the bronchial tree and peripheral vascualture with minimal cardiac effects.

What are the indications for Terbutaline Sulfate?
Bronchial asthma, reversible bronchosmapsm associated with exercise chronic bronchitis, emphysema

What is the adult dose of Terbutaline Sulfate?
0.25 mg SC may repeat in 15-30 minutes max odse of 0.5 mg in a 4 hour period.

Thiamine is also known as?
Betaxin

What class is Thiamine?
Vitamin B

What is the MOA of Thiamine?
Combines with ATP to form thiamine pyrophosphate coenzyme, which is a necessary component for carbohydrate metabolism. The brain is extremely sensitive to thiamine deficiency

What are the indications for Thiamine?
Coma of unknown origin, delirium tremens, beriberi, Wernicke Encephalopathy

What is the adult dose of Thiamine?
100mg slow IV or IM

Tirofiban Hydrochloride is also known as?
Aggrastat

What is the class of Tirofiban?
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, platelet aggregation inhibitor

What is the MOA of Tirofiban?
Inhibits aggregation of platelets by reversibly antagonizing fibrinogen binding to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

What are the indications for Tirofiban?
Acute coronary syndrome, patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or atherectomy

What is the adult dose of Tirofiban?
Loading dose: 0.4 Microgram/kg/min IV for 30 minute, infusion 0.1 microgram/kg/min for 18-24 hours post angioplasty

Vasopressin is also known as?
Pitressin

What class is Vasopressin?
Vasopressor

What is the MOA of Vasopressin?
Stimulation of smooth muscle receptors. Potent vasoconstrictor when given in high doses.

What are the indications for Vasopressin?
Alternative vasopressor to the first or second dose of Epinephrine in cardiac arrest, alternative to epinephrine in asystole, PEA

What is the adult dose of Vasopressin?
40 U one-time dose IV/IO to replace the first or second dose of Epi in cardiac arrest.

Vecuronium Bromide is also known as?
Norcuron

What class is Vecuronium Bromide?
Neuromuscular blocker, nondepolarizing

What is the MOA of Vecuronium Bromide?
Neuromuscular agent with intermediate duration of action that competes with acetylcholine for receptors at the motor end plate, resulting in neuromuscular blockade

What are the indications of Vecuronium Bromide?
Rapid-sequence Intubation

What is the adult dose of Vecuronium Bromide?
0.1-0.2 mg/kg IV push
Maintenance dose withing 45-60 minutes: 0.8-1.2 mg/kg IV push

Verapamil Hydrochloride is also known as?
Isoptin, Calan

What class is Verapamil?
Calcium channel blocker

What is the MOA of Verapamil?
Slow calcium channel blocker that selectively blocks the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into arterial smooth muscles and myocardial cells. Prolongs AV nodal refractory period. Reduces systemic vascular resistance and selective vasodilation of peripheral arteries. Dilates coronary arteries and arterioles.

What are the indication for Verapamil?
Paroxymal SVT, A-Flutter, and A-Fib with rapid ventricular response, re-entry SVT

What is the adult dose of Verapamil?
2.5-5 mg IV bolus over 2 minutes (3 minutes in elderly). Repeat dose of 5-10 mg may be given every 15-30 minutes to max dose of 20mg

Plasma Protein Fraction is also known as?
Plasmanate

What is the class of Plasmanate?
Natural colloid

What is the MOA of Plasmanate?
Plasmanate is a protein-containing colloid that remains in the intravascular compartment. IT increases intravascular volume by attracting water from other fluid compartment by virtue of its colooid osmotic pressure

What are the indications for Plasmanate?
Hypovolemic shock, especially burn shock; hypoproteninemia

What is the adult dose of Plasmanate?
Medical control physician will judge.

What class is Dextran?
Artificial Colloid

What is the MOA of Dextran?
Dextran is a sugar-containing colloid used as an intravascular volume expander. It remains in the intravascular compartment for approsximately 12 hours. IT increases intravascular volume by attracting water from other fluid compartments by virtue of its colloid osmotic pressure

What are the indications for Dextran?
hypovolemic Shock

What is the dose for Dextran?
It is titrated according to the patient’s physiologic response

Hetastarch is also known as?
Hespan

What is the MOA of Hetastarch?
Hetastarch is a starch-containing colloid used as an intravascular volume expander. Following administration, the plasma volume is expanded slightly in excess of the volume of hetastarch administered. This effect has been observed for up to 24 to 36 hours. Hetastarch increases intravasclar volume by virtue of it colloid osmotic pressure

What are the indications for Hetastarch?
Hypovolemic shock, especially burn shock, septic shock

What is the dose for Hetastarch?
Titrated according to the patient’s physciologic response.

What class is Lactaed Ringers?
Isotonic crystalloid solution

What is the MOA of LR?
Lactaed ringers replaces water and electrolytes

What are the indications for LR?
Hypovolemic shock; Keep open IV

What is the dose for LR?
Titrate according to patient’s physiologic response

What class is 5% dextrose in water or D5W?
Hypotonic dextrose-containing solution

What is the MOA of D5W
Provides nutrients in the form of dextrose as well as free water

What are the indications for D5W?
IV access for emergency drugs; for dilution of concentrated drugs for intravenous infusion

What is the dose for D5W?
Usually administered through a minidrip set at a rate TKO

What class is (D10W) 10% Dextrose in Water?
Hypertonic dextrose-containing solution?

What is the MOA of D10W?
Provides nutrients in the form of dextrose as well as free water?

What are the indications for D10W?
Neonatal resuscitation, hpoglycemia

0.9% Sodium Chloride is also known as?
Normal Saline

What is the class of NS?
Isotonic crystalloid solution

What is the MOA of NS?
Replaces water and electrolytes

What are the indications for NS?
Heat-related problems, freshwater drowning, hypovolemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, TKO

What is the dose for NS?
The specific situation being treated wil dictate the rate in which normal saline will be administered.

0.45% Sodium Chloride is also known as?
Half normal saline

What class is Half NS?
Hypotonic crystalloid solution

What is the MOA of Half NS?
One half normal saline replaces free water and electrolytes

What are the indications for half NS?
Patients with diminished renal or cardiovascular function for which rapid rehydration is not indicated.

What is the dose for Half NS?
The specific situation and patient condition will dictate the rate at which one half normal saline will be administered

5% Dextrose in 0.45% Sodium Chloride is?
D5,1/2NS

What class is D5,1/2NS?
Hypertonic dextrose-containing crystalloid solution

What is the MOA of D5,1/2NS?
Replaces free water and electrolytes and provieds nutrients in the form of dextrose

What is the dose for D5,1/2NS?
Specific situation and patient condition will dictate the rate.

5% dextrose in 0.9 Sodium Chloride is?
D5NS

What class is D5NS?
Hypertonic dextrose-containing cyrstalloid solution

What is the MOA of D5NS?
Replaces free water and electrolytes and provides nutrients in the form of Dextrose

What are the indications for D5NS?
Heat-related disorders, freshwater drowning, hypovolemia, peritonitis

What is the dose for D5NS?
Specific situation and patient condition will dictate the rate

5% dextrose in Lactated Ringers is?
D5LR

What class is D5LR?
Hypertonic dextrose-containing crystalloid solution

What is the MOA of D5LR?
Replaces water and electrolytes and provides nutrients inthe for of dextrose

What are the indications of D5LR?
Hypovolemic shock, hemorrhagic shock, certain cases of acidosis

What is the dose of D5LR?
In severe hypovolemic shock, D5LR should be infused through a large-bore Cath (14g-16G). This infusion should be administered wide open until blood pressrue of 100mmHg is achieved. WHen the blood pressure is attained, the infusions should be reduced to 100mL/h. IN other cases, the specific situation and patient condition will dictate the rate of administration.

What are the Contraindications for Activated Charcoal?
Comatose patients

What are the Contraindications for Adenosine?
Second or third degree AV block, sick sinus syndrome, Asthma or COPD, poison or drug induced tachycardia

What are the Contraindications for Albuterol?
Tachycardia, dysrhythmias

What are the Contraindications for Alteplase?
Active internal bleeding, recent surgery, previous cerebral vascular accident or seizure at onset

What are the Contraindications for Amiodarone?
Hypersensitivity to iodine, cardiogenic shock, sinus bradycardia, second or third degree AV block

What are the Contraindications for Amyl NItrite?
None in emergency setting

What are the Contraindications for Aspirin?
Hypersensitivity, active ulcer disease or asthma.

What are the Contraindications for Atenolol?
Heart Failure, cardiogenic shock, bradycardia, lung disease, hypotension, second or third degree heart block

What are the Contraindications for Atropine?
Tachycardia, acute hemorrhage with myocardial ischemia, narrow-angle glaucoma, hypothermic bradycardia

What are the Contraindications for Benzocaine spray?
known hypersensitivity

What are the Contraindications for Bumex?
known hypersensitivity to sulfonamides, hypovolemia, electrolyte deficiencies, hepatic coma

What are the Contraindications for Calcium Chloride?
Hypercalcemia, ventriular fibrillation, digitalis toxicity

What are the Contraindications for Calcium Gluconate?
Ventricular fibrillation, digitalis toxicity, hypercalcemia

What are the Contraindications for Plavix?
Active GI bleed, intracranial hemorrhage

What are the Contraindications for Decadron?
Hypersensitivity, use caution in suspected systemic sepsis

What are the Contraindications for for Dextrose?
Intracranial Hemorrhage

What are the Contraindications for Diazepam?
Narrow-angle glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, respiratory insufficiency, coma, head injury

What are the Contraindications for Digoxin?
Ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, digitalis toxicity, hypersensitivity

What are the Contraindications for Cardizem?
Hypotension, sick sinus syndrome, second or third degree AV block, cardiogenic shock, wide-complex tachycardia, poison or drug induced tachycardia

What are the Contraindications for Benadryl?
Astham, glaucoma, pregnancy, hypertension, infants, patients taking MAOIs

What are the Contraindications for Dobutrex?
Tachydysrhythmias, severe hypotension, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis

What are the Contraindications for Anzemet?
Known hypersensitivity, use caution in patients with cardiac dysrhythmias or electrolyte abnormalities

What are the Contraindications for Dopamine?
Hypovolemic shock, pheochromocytoma, tachydysrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation

What are the Contraindications for Epi?
Hypertension, hypothermia, pulmonary edema, MI, Hypovolemic shock

What are the Contraindications for Epi Racemic?
Hypertension, underlying cardiovascular disease, epiglottitis

What are the Contraindications for Eptifibatide?
Prior Intracranial hemorrhage, aortic dissection, closed head trauma or facial trauma within 3 months

What are the Contraindications for Etomidate?
Known hypersensitivity, labor/delivery

What are the Contraindications for Fentanyl?
Known hypersensitivity, caution with head injury/TBI

What are the Contraindications for Romazicon?
Trycyclic antidepressant overdose, seizure-pronepatients, coma of unknown etiology

What are the Contraindications for Cerebyx?
Bradycardia, second or third degree AV block, sinoatrial blocks

What are the Contraindications for Lasix?
Hypovolemia, anuria, hypotension, hepatic coma, suspected electrolyte imbalances

What are the Contraindications for Glucagon?
Hyperglycemia,

What are the Contraindications for Haldol?
Parkinsons disease, depressed mental status, agitation secondary to shock and hypoxia

What are the Contraindications for Heparin?
Active bleeding, recent intracranial, intraspinal or eye surgery, severe hypertension, bleeding tendencies severe thrombocytopenia

What are the Contraindications for Solu-cortef?
Systemic fungal infections, premature infants

What are the Contraindications for Hydroxocobalamin?
none in emergency setting

What are the Contraindications for Hydroxyzine?
hypersensitivity, early pregnancy

What are the Contraindications for Insulin?
hypoglycemia, hypokalemia

What are the Contraindications for Atrovent?
hypersensitivity to ipratropium, atropine, alkaloids, peanuts

What are the Contraindications for Isoetharine?
Use with caution in Diabetes pt, hperthyroidism, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease

What are the Contraindications for Toradol?
Allergy to NSAIDS, pt with history of Asthma, bleeding disorders, renal failure

What are the Contraindications for Labetalol?
bronchial asthma, congestive heart failure cardiogenic shock, second and third degree AV block, bradycardia

What are the Contraindications for Levalbuterol?

What Medications Have Weight Based doses for adults? Doses? Diltiazem – 0.25mg/kg Slow IVP, repeat in 15min @ 0.35mg/kg slow ivp Lidocaine – Cardiac Arrest – 1-1.5mg/kg IVP, repeat at half q 5min max 3mg, single dose of 1.5mg/kg of …

Activated Charcoal Class: Adsorbent Indications: Most oral poisonings and medication overdoses Contraindications: Comatose pt’s + after injestion of corrosives, caustics Dosage: Adult: 1-2 g/kg PO Pediatric: 1-2 g/kg PO Adenosine ( Adenocard ) Class: Endogenous nucleotide Indications: Conversion of PSVT …

Activated Charcoal CLASS: adsorbent ACTIONS: adsorbs toxins by chemical binding and prevents GI absorption INDICATIONS: poisoning following emesis or when emesis is contraindicated CONTRAINDICATIONS: none in severe poisoning PRECAUTIONS: should only be administered following emesis in which it is so …

Class Selective beta-blocker Description A Beta antagonist that blocks both beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors Selective for beta 1 adrenergic receptors WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

Activated Charcoal (Actidose, Insta-char) Class: Absorbent Actions: Adsorbs toxins by chemically binding and prevents gastrointestinal adsorption. Route: Oral Indications: Poisoning following emesis or when emesis is contraindicated. Contraindications: None in severe poisoning. Precautions: Should only be administered following emesis, in …

ADENOSINE indications for use *First drug for most forms of stable narrow complex SVT. *Effective in terminating those due to reentry involving AV node or sinus node. AMIODARONE indications for use *VF/pulseless VT unresponsive to shock delivery, CPR, and a …

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