Other glands afected by the growth hormones

• Pineal Gland This small gland, situated within the base of the brain, secretes melatonin, which is thought to affect wakefulness and various biorhythms in the body. The exact function of melatonin is not yet known. • Gonads, or Sex Glands The two ovaries (in females) are found in the pelvic girdle, on each side of the womb. The hormones estrogen and progesterone are produced here. These control the menstrual cycle and affect the development of adult female physical characteristics.

The testes (in males), located in the scrotum, produce hormones that control the development of the body features of an adult male at puberty and stimulate sperm production. • Pituitary Gland This pea-sized organ is attached to the brain by a slender stalk and lies just above and behind the nose. The pituitary is supervisor of the other glands, sending out chemical messages to the thyroid, adrenal, and sex glands, as well as to other glands having endocrine functions. It is the main controller of height and influences the growth of bones and muscles.

It also stimulates the production of milk by the breasts of a nursing mother. • Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands These glands are situated in the neck. The parathyroid secretes hormones that regulate calcium levels to maintain healthy bones. The thyroid produces other hormones that control the speed at which oxygen and food are used to produce energy. • The Adrenal Glands Located just above each kidney, the two adrenal glands produce adrenaline and noradrenaline, which equip the body for fight or flight in emergencies.

Additional hormones manufactured here affect the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, regulate water handled by the kidneys, and activate the body’s food stores when there is little to eat. • Pancreas Located underneath the stomach, this gland turns out glucagon and insulin, which regulate the level of sugar in the blood. Conclusion Growth hormones play a great role in the development of human bodies along with the different aspects of individual personalities.

Carrying into consideration the different effects of growth hormones to the human individuals is an important aspect of noticing the different procedures of growth that the human body undergoes thus helping in the process of understanding the point of development that each one undergoes for the sake of social connective development as well. Reference: Alba-Roth J, Muller O, Schopohl J, von Werder K (1988). “Arginine stimulates growth hormone secretion by suppressing endogenous somatostatin secretion”. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67 (6): 1186-9. PMID 2903866.

Scarth J. “Modulation of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis by pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and environmental xenobiotics: an emerging role for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and the transcription factors regulating their expression. A review”. Xenobiotica 36 (2-3): 119-218. PMID 16702112. Takahashi Y, Kipnis D, Daughaday W (1968). “Growth hormone secretion during sleep”. J Clin Invest 47 (9): 2079-90. PMID 5675428. Actions of Anterior Pituitary Hormones: Physiologic Actions of GH. Medical College of Georgia. 2007.

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