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What are the 4 guiding principles of ocular pharmacology?
1. Do no harm
2. All drugs are toxic
3. All drugs may interact with other drugs.
4. All ocular medications are systemic medications.

What affect does ocular inflammation have on ophthalmic drug absorption?
Greatly increases it.

What part of the eye is the main site of resistance to drug penetration?
The corneal epithelium

For what parts of the eye are topical medications used?
Eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and anterior uvea

In dogs and cats, subconjunctival drug doses should not exceed what amount?
0.25 mL

For what parts of the eye are systemic medications required?
– Retina
– Optic nerve
– Vitreous

Topical administration of cholinergic miotics produces what four ocular effects?
1. Pupillary constriction
2. Ciliary muscle contraction
3. Increased aqueous outflow facility
4. Vasodilation

What type of drug is Pilocarpine? What side effects have been associated with it?
Direct acting cholinergic (miotic agent). Causes intraocular inflammation & nausea.

What type of drug is demecarium bromide?
An anticholinesterase (miotic agent). Not currently available.

What types of drugs are latanoprost and travoprost? What is their primary use?
Both are PGF2-alpha analogs used primarily for treating glaucoma, but can also be used as miotics.

Name 3 drugs used as topical miotics.
– Pilocarpine
– Demecarium bromide
– Latanoprost

What classes of autonomic drugs can be used to induce mydriasis?
– Parasympatholytics
– Sympathomimetics

Atropine and tropicamide are cycloplegic. What does this mean?
They paralyze the ciliary musculature, which reduces intraocular pain and induces mydriasis.

What type of drug is atropine? What is a potential complication of its ophthalmic use?
Atropine is a parasympatholytic. Its induction of cycloplegia increases the risk of developing secondary glaucoma due to the decreased aqueous outflow.

Atropine should be used cautiously in what group of animals?
Very young animals — drainage angle still developing.

What type of drug is tropicamide?
Parasympatholytic

What type of drug is epinephrine? What is its primary use?
Sympathomimetic. Used primarily to treat glaucoma by decreasing aqueous production via ciliary vasoconstriction.

What two drugs can be helpful in differentiating conjunctivitis from scleral injection?
Epinephrine and phenylephrine.

What are the two effects of adrenergic beta-blockers on the eye? What are ocular beta-blocker drugs and what are they used to treat?
Effects: reduced formation of aqueous humor, increased aqueous outflow.

Drugs: timolol maleate and betaxolol — both used to treat glaucoma.

Why is chloramphenicol used extensively in the initial treatment of intraocular infections? Is it bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic?
Because it is fat soluble and broad spectrum. It is bacteriostatic.

Why should people wear gloves when administering chloramphenicol to their pets?
Because it has been shown to cause aplastic anemia in people.

Name 2 aminoglycosides used ophthalmalogically.
Neomycin
Gentamycin

What ocular antibiotic is the number one conjunctival irritant?
Neomycin

What can you use if an eye infection is refractory to gentamicin?
Tobramycin

Due to the increasing cost of ophthalmic triple antibiotic ointment, what drug is increasingly being used in its place?
Erythromycin

What are the topical and systemic treatments of choice, respectively, for treating Mycoplasma and Chlamydophyla conjunctivitis in cats?
Topical — terramycin (oxytetracycline + polymyxin B)
Systemic — doxycycline

What topical antibiotic can be used to treat G+ infections that are resistant to other antimicrobials?
1st generation cephalosporins

Which antimicrobial has been shown to cause retinal degeneration in cats?
Enrofloxacin

What are the drugs (i.e., class) of choice for treating Staph and Strep infections of the cornea, conjunctiva, and inner eye?
Fluoroquinolones

What is the only antifungal agent approved for topical ophthalmic use?
Natamycin

What is the drug of choice for topical (subpalpebral lavage) treatment of fungal eye infection?
Voriconazole 1%

What pyrimidine, though currently not approved for topical ophthalmic use, has been shown to be effective against both fungal and bacterial conjunctivitis?
Silver sulfadiazine

What antiviral drugs should absolutely NOT be used in the treatment of herpetic keratitis in cats?
– Acyclovir
– Valcyclovir

What is the only systemic antiviral drug you should ever give to a cat?
Famcyclovir

Name 3 topical antivirals that are safe to use in herpetic keratitis in cats. Which is most effective?
– Idoxuridine
– Trifluridine
– Cidofovir — most effective

Name 5 actions of corticosteroids on the eye.
1. Decrease exudate & infiltrates
2. Inhibit scarring
3. Retard cell regeneration
4. Decrease neovascularization
5. Reduce capillary permeability

Name 3 local side effects of ophthalmic steroid use.
1. Delayed corneal healing
2. Increased corneal collagenase
3. Increased incidence of bacterial & mycotic keratitis

Penetration and effect of ophthalmic corticosteroids are influenced by what three factors?
1. Type of salt used in preparation
2. Frequency of application
3. Proximity of treatment to site of involvement

Which NSAIDs that are available for ophthalmic use are specifically COX-2 inhibitors?
– Deracoxib
– Meloxicam

Which ophthalmic NSAID is used pre-operatively in cataract patients?
diclofenac sodium (voltaren)

What condition are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors used to treat in the eye? What are the side effects?
Glaucoma. Side effects include metabolic acidosis, anorexia, vomiting, & depression

What is the benefit of using systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in the treatment of glaucoma?
There is none. This should not be done.

What is the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor available in an ophthalmic preparation?
dorzolamide

Should topical anesthetics be given before taking a microbial culture sample from the eye?
No. Topical anesthetics have been shown to inhibit microorganisms.

Name 2 reasons topical anesthetics should not be used on a regular basis in painful eyes.
1. Animal may scratch off corneal epithelium since it is numb
2. TAs may inhibit corneal mitosis

What is a major treatment consideration for using systemic glycerin?
Do not use in diabetic animals as it is metabolized to glucose.

What is the main use for systemic osmotic agents in ophthalmology?
Treatment of acute primary glaucoma

What is the indication for using topical hypertonic saline in the eye?
Treatment of severe, chronic corneal edema

What are the 2 indications for ophthalmic pilocarpine?
– Induction of miosis
– Treatment of neurogenic KCS

What are the drugs of choice in treating KCS?
– Cyclosporine A
– Tacrolimus

What type of drugs is indicated for the treatment of melting corneal ulcers?
Collagenase inhibitors

Name 2 drugs that can be used to treat melting corneal ulcers? Which is the drug of choice?
– Autogenous serum (drug of choice)
– Tetra- or doxycycline

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Beta-adrenergic Blockers glaucoma, decreases aqueous production, Yellow Beta-adrenergic Blockers, Side Effects slow heart rate, decreased BP, exacerbation of asthma …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Increased intraocular pressure is a characteristic of which disease? Glaucoma The mucous membrane that covers the inside of the …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Topical Advantages – Convenient – Economical – Safe (Sometimes systemic doesn’t cut it for the eye) Topical Limitations and …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Aqueous Humor the rate of production is equal to the rate of outflow which helps to maintain IOP within …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Length of the eye 24 mm Limbus where the cornea and sclera meet WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Betazolol hydrochloride (Betoptic) eye drops have been prescribed ror the client with claucoma. Which of the following nursing actions …

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