Nursing Science Ch 2

Theory
A systematic explanation of an event in which
constructs and concepts are identified
relationships are proposed and
predictions made

Borrowed or Shared Theory
a theory developed in another discipline that is not adapted to the worldview and practice of nursing

Concept
are the elements or components of a phenomenon necessary to understand the phenomenon

Concept
concepts are abstract and derived from impressions the human mind receives about phenomena through sensing the environment

Epistemology
refers to theories of knowledge or how people come to have knowledge; in nursing it is the study of the origins of nursing knowledge

Knowledge
refers to the awareness or perception of reality acquired through insight, learning, or investigation.

Laws
a proposition about the relationship between concepts in a theory that has been repeatedly validated

Laws
are highly generalizable
are found primarily in disciplines that deal with observable and measurable phenomena, like chemistry and physics
social and human sciences have few laws

Metaparadigm
the worldview of a discipline,
the global perspective that comprise more specific views to those with which the discipline is concerned

Metaparadigm
is the ideology within which the theories, knowledge, and processes for knowing, find meaning and coherence.

Nursing’s Metaparadigm
consists of the concepts of person, environment, health, and nursing

Middle range theory
refers to a part of a discipline’s concerns related to particular topics. The scope is narrower than that of grand theories

Ontology
concerned with the study of existence and the nature of reality

Phenomena
the selectiona of an aspect of reality; the phenomena (idea) of interest become the subject matter that are the main concerns of a discipline

Philosophy
a statement of beliefs and values about human beings and their world

Practice theory or Microtheory
deals with a limited range of discrete phenomena
phenomena are specifically defined and are not expanded to include their link with the broad concerns of a discipline

Worldview
the philosophical frame of reference used by a social or cultural group to describe that group’s outlook on, and beliefs about reality.

Florence Nightingale
the first modern nursing theorist

Purpose of nursing theories
to describe and define nursing
to guide nursing practive

Stages of Theory development in Nursing
1. Silent knowledge
2. Received knowledge
3. Subjective knowledge
4. Procedural knowledge
5. Constructed knowledge

Silent knowledge stage, source
blind obedience to medical authority
nurses depended on physician’s diagnosis and orders
nurses were submissive and obedient
fulfilled their responsibilities to physicians without question

Silent knowledge stage, impact on theory and research
little attempt to develop theory
research limited to collection of epidemiologic data

Received knowledge stage, source
learning through listening to others

Received knowledge stage, impact on theory and research
theories borrowed from others disciplines
as nurses acquired non-nursing doctoral degrees, they relied on the authority of sociologists, psychologists, etc to provide answers to nursing problems

Received knowledge stage
Esther Brown, recommended the focus of nursing education in universities
Journal: *Nursing Research* first published
Books on research methods & theories appeared
Funds were authorized to promote graduate education
Nurse scholars debated and questioned ideas.

Subjective knowledge stage, source
Authority was internalized and a new sense of self emerged

Subjective knowledge stage, impact on theory and research
a negative attitude toward borrowed theories emerged
Nurse scholars focused on defining nursing and on developing theories about and for nursing
Nursing research focused on the nurse rather than on clients and clinical situations

Procedural knowledge stage, source
includes both separated and connected knowledge

*Procedural Knowledge Stage*
*Impact on Theory and Research*
Increased approaches to theory development
Application of theory in practice was often underemphasized

*Procedural Knowledge Stage*
*Impact on Theory and Research*
Emphasis was placed on the procedures used to acquire knowledge, with overattention to the appropriateness of methodology, the criteria for evolution and statistical procedures for data analysis

*Procedural Knowledge Stage*
late 1970’s to 1980’s theories moved to characterizing nursing’s role from *what they do* to *what nursing is*

*Constructed Knowledge Stage*, source
Integration of different types of knowledge :-
intuition
reason
self-knowledge

*Constructed Knowledge Stage*
*Impact on Theory Development*
Nursing theory should be based on;
prior empirical studies,
theoretical literature,
client reports of clinical experiences and feelings, and,
nurse scholar’s intuition or related knowledge about the phenomenon (idea) of concern.

*Constructed Knowledge Stage*
1990’s to early 21st centure, focus shifted from Grand theories to middle range and practice theories
the current stage of theory development in Nursing

Classification of Nursing Theories
Metatheory – Most abstract/Broad
Grand Theories / Middle-range theories – Abstract / Broad
Practice Level Theory – Least abstract

Classification of Nursing Theories, *Scope*
The *scope* of a theory includes its level of specificity and the concreteness of its concepts and propositions
Theories differ in complexity along a continuum from microtheories to grand theories.

Scope
Metatheory
Philosophy or Worldview
used to describe the philosophical basis of the discipline

Scope
*Grand theory or Macrotheory*
used to describe the comphrensive conceptual frameworks

Scope
*Middle range or Midrange theory*
more focused than the grand theories

Scope
*Microtheory, Situation-specific theory, or Practice theory*
describes those smalles in scope

*Metatheory*
refers to a theory about a theory
focuses on broad issues
a forum for debate within nursing

Metatheory
– consists of many views about theory in nursing
– it cannot be consolidated into one unanimously accepted set of beliefs
– focuses on broad issues related to theory in nursing
– does not generally produce any grand, middle or practice theories

Metatheory; Issues debated
1. Identifying the purposes and kinds of theory needed in nursing
2. Proposing and critiquing sources or methods of theory development in nursing
3. Proposing criteria for evaluating theory
Examples: meaning of nursing as a “practice discipline”, nursing as a science and nursing as a profession

*Grand Theories / Macrotheory*
– The most complex and broadest in scope.
– May incorporate many theories.
– They attempt to explain broad areas within a discipline.
– May incorporate numerous other theories.

Grand Theories
are non-specific:
– lack operational definitions
– propositions are abstract
– not usually testable

Grand Theories
are developed through thoughtful and insightful appraisal of existing ideas.
Examples; Orem, Rogers, Roy

Asian immigrant women’s menopausal symptom experience in the United States A. Grand Nursing Theory B. Middle Range Nursing Theory C. Situation-Specific Nursing Theory C. Situation-Specific Nursing Theory Theory of flight nursing expertise A. Grand Nursing Theory B. Middle Range Nursing …

Assumptions “taken for granted” statements that explain the nature of the concepts definitions, purpose, relationships, and structure ofa theory. (pg. 46) Concepts Can be simple or complex and relate to an object or event that comes from individual perceptual experiences. …

feedback process in which the output of a given system is returned to the system health dynamic state in which individuals adapt to their internal and external environments so there is a state of physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual …

Conceptual Models -They are broad formulations of philosophies based on attempts to include the whole of nursing realities as the the scholar understands it OR – it is a model made of the composition of concepts, which are used to …

assumptions Statements that describe concepts or connect two concepts that are factual and that are accepted as truths. concepts Mental formulations of objects or events that come from individual perceptual experience. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

Theory **A set of statements that describes or explains phenomena in a systematic way** Provide description and explanation of occurrence of phenomena Helps describe, explain, or predict Always subjective, subject to revision Theories are always speculative and never considered to …

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