Nursing Pharmacology Chapter 3 Medication Safety

The nurses’ 6 rights
1. the right to complete and clear order 2. the right to have the correct drug, route (form) and dose dispensed 3. the right to access to information 4. the right to policies to guide safe medication administration 5. the right to administer medications safely and to identify system problems 6. the right to stop, think and be vigilant when administering medications.

The 5 drug administration rights
1. the right client 2. the right drug 3. the right dose 4. the right time 5. the right route

The 5 rights for additional nursing practice
1. the right assessment 2. the right documentation 3. the clients right to education 4. the right evaluation 5. the clients right to refuse

(TO)
telephone order

(VO)
verbal order

To avoid drug error, the drug label should be read three times:
1. at the time of contact with the drug bottle or prepackaged drug unit 2. before measuring the drug 3. after measuring the drug

The two most frequently used methods of drug distribution
stock drug method and unit dose method

Stock drug method
the drugs are dispensed to all clients from the same container

Unit dose method
drugs are individually wrapped and labeled for single doses for each client. (the unit dose method, which is popular in many institutions and community settings, has reduced dosage errors because no calculations are required.)

Automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs)
assist the nurse in correctly and quickly administering medications

(PDR)
Physicians Desk Reference

(b.i.d)
twice a day

(t.i.d)
three times a day

(q.i.d)
four times a day

(q6h)
every 6 hours

Daily drug doses are given at specified times during a day so that
the plasma level of the drug is maintained at a therapeutic level

Drugs may be given within ______ before or after the time prescribed.
1 hour

When the drug has a long half life (t1/2), the drug is given
once a day

Drugs with short half life are given
several times a day at specific intervals

Instillation
drug administration via nose, eyes or ear

(CPOE)
computerized prescriber entry order systems interact with laboratory, pharmacy and client dat

(NABP)
national association of boards of pharmacy

(VIPPS)
verified internet pharmacy practice sites accreditation program seal

(ER)
extended release

(SR)
sustained release

(ISMP)
institute for safe medication practices

FDA pregnancy category A
No risk to fetus. Studies have not shown evidence of fetal harm.

FDA pregnancy category B
No risk in animal studies, and well controlled studies in pregnant women are not available. It is assumed there is little to no risk in pregnant women.

FDA pregnancy category C
Animal studies indicate a risk to the fetus. Controlled studies on pregnant women are not available. Risk versus benefit of the drug must be determined.

FDA pregnancy category D
A risk to the human fetus has been proved. Risk versus benefit of the drug must be determined. It could be used in life threatening conditions.

FDA pregnancy category X
A risk to the human fetus has been proved. Risk outweighs the benefit, and drug should be avoided during pregnancy.

Blood brain barrier only allows
lipid soluble drugs to enter the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Compounds that are strongly ionized and poorly soluble in fat are barred from entry into the brain.

Drugs that can diffuse across the placenta
lipid soluble and lipid insoluble drugs

Some drugs may have teratogenic effects if taken during the first trimester of pregnancy which means
they may induce aberrant development of fetal organs or body systems (especially true if the drugs are taken during the 4th through 8th week of gestation.)

Do not administer or do administer, drugs poured by others
do not administer

Do not administer or do administer, client states that drug is different than usual
do not administer

Do not administer or do administer, offer ice to numb taste buds for distasteful drugs
do administer

Do not administer or do administer, drugs transferred from one container to another
do not administer

Do not administer or do administer, record fluids taken with medications on the intake and output sheet
do administer

Do not administer or do administer, medications left with visitors
do not administer

Animal studies indicate a risk to the fetus. Risk versus benefit of the drug must be determined. Is pregnancy category A, B, C, D or X?
C

A risk to the human fetus has been proven. Risk outweighs the benefit, and drug should be avoided during pregnancy. Is pregnancy category A, B, C, D or X?
X

No risk to fetus. Studies have not shown evidence of fetal harm. Is pregnancy category A, B, C, D or X?
A

No risk in animal studies, and well controlled studies in pregnant women are not available. It is assumed there is little to no risk in pregnant women. Is pregnancy category A, B, C, D or X?
B

A risk to the human fetus has been proven. Risk versus benefit of the drug must be determined. It could be used in life threatening situations. Is pregnancy category A, B, C, D or X?
D

When the nurse calculates the dosage for a clients cardiac medication, the drug dose is “large”. Which is the best initial action for the nurse to take?
check the calculations

The clients medication was taken from an open vial in the refrigerator. Which is the best action for the nurse to take before putting the medication back into the refrigerator?
date and time vial opened; initials

The client has refused to take a medication. Which action should the nurse take first?
document the reason not taken

Which abbreviations are not allowed by the Joint Commission?
U, IU, trailing zero, q.d.

The “right to education” includes which actions?
the client receives correct information about the drug and how it relates to the situation, possible side effects and laboratory monitoring

The 1st nursing right The right to a complete and clear order 2nd nursing right The right to have the correct drug, route, and dose dispensed WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Pharmacology Study of the biological effects of chemicals Pharmacotherapeutics Branch of pharmacology that deals with drugs (clinical pharmacology) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Preclinical Drug Trials …

Adverse Effects The undesired, unpleasant, or even dangerous results some drugs produce. Brand Name The name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical company that developed it. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

1) Oxygen 2) Oral Glucose 3) Activated Charcoal 4) Aspirin What are the 4 medications carried on the EMS Unit? chemical name describes the drug’s chemical structure WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

What does ADEs stand for? adverse drug events What does BSA stand for? body surface area WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample What does CMS stand for? …

The branch of pharmacology that uses drugs to treat, prevent, and diagnose disease. Pharmacotherapeutics (Clinical Pharm.) Name given to the drug by the manufacturer. Brand Name WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy