Nursing Pharmacology Chapter 2

Additive effects
drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone (1+1=2) compare with synergistic effects

Adverse drug event
any undesirable occurrence related to administering or failing to administer a prescribed medication

Adverse drug reaction
any unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response to a medication given at therapeutic dosages (as opposed to overdose)

Agonist
a drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body

Adverse effects
a general term for any undesirable effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs.

Allergic reaction
an immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular medication; a type of adverse drug event.

Antagonist
A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more receptors in the body. Antagonist are also called inhibitors

Antagonistic effects
drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs is less than the sum of the individual effects of the same drug given alone(1+1 = less than 2) it is usually caused by an antagonizing (blocking or reducing) effect of one drug on another

Bioavailability
a measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route (from 0% to 100%)

Biotransformation
One or more biochemical reactions involving a parent drug. Biotransformation occurs mainly in the liver and produces a metabolite that is either inactive or active. Also known as metabolism.

Blood brain barrier
the barrier system that restricts the passage if various chemicals and microscopic entities (e.g. bacteria, viruses) between the bloodstream and the central nervous system. It still allows for the essential substances such as oxygen

Chemical Name
The name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug.

Contraindication
Any condition, especially one related to a disease state or other patient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable.

Cytochrome P450
The general name for a large class of enzymes that play a significant role in drug metabolism

Dependence
a state in which there is a compulsive or chronic need, as for a drug

Dissolution
The process by which solid forms of drugs disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tract and become soluble before being absorbed into the circulation

Drug
Any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of a living organism

Drug Actions
the cellular processes involved in the interaction between a drug and body cells (e.g., the action of a drug on a receptor protein); also called mechanism of action.

Drug effects
the physiologic reactions of the body to a drug. They can be therapeutic or toxic and describe how the function of the body is affected as whole by the drug. The terms onset, peak, and duration are used to describe drug effects (most often referring to therapeutic effects)

Drug-induced teratogenesis
The development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by the toxic effects of drugs

Drug interaction
alteration in the pharmacologic activity of a given drug caused by the presence of one or more additional drugs; it is usually related to effects on the enzymes required for metabolism of the involved drugs.

Enzymes
Protein molecules that catalyze one or more of a variety of biochemical reactions, including those related to the body’s own physiologic processes as well as those related to drug metabolism

Duration of action
the length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a response

First-pass effect
the initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream

Generic Name
The name given to a drug by the United States Adopted Names Council. Also called the nonproprietary name. The generic name is much shorter and simpler than the chemical name and is not protected by trademark.

Half Life
In pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body or the time it takes for the blood level of a drug to reduced by 50% (also called elimination half life)

Idiosyncratic reaction
An abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient

Incompatibility
The characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed or given together that results in the chemical deterioration of at least one of the drugs.

Intraarticular
Within a joint

Intrathecal
Within a sheath

Medication Error
Any preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional; it may or may not cause the patient harm.

Medication use process
the prescribing, dispensing, and administering of medications and the monitoring of their effects

Metabolite(s)
chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical (metabolic) reactions involving the parent drug.
active – have pharmacologic activity of their own, even if parent drug is inactive
inactive – lack pharmacologic activity & are simply waste products awaiting excretion from the body

Onset of action
the time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing

Parent Drug
The chemical form of a drug that is administered before it is metabolized by the body’s biochemical reactions into its active or inactive metabolites (see metabolite). A parent drug that is not pharmacologically active itself is called a prodrug. A prodrug is then metabolized to pharmacologically active metabolites

Peak effect
the time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body

Peak Level
the maximum concentration of a drug in the body after administration, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring

Pharmaceutics
the science of preparing and dispensing of drugs, including dosage form design.

Pharmacodynamics
The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity. It examines the physicochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interactions with body receptors.

Pharmacogenetics
the study of the influence of genetic factors on drug response, including the nature of genetic aberrations that result in the absence, overabundance, or insufficiency of drug-metabolizing enzymes (also called pharmacogenomics)

Pharmacognosy
the study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources

Pharmacokinetics
The rate of drug distribution among various body compartments after a drug has entered the body. It includes the phases of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs.

Pharmacology
The broadest term for the study or science of drugs

Pharmacotherapeutics
the treatment of pathologic condition through the use of drugs

Prodrug
An inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body

Receptor
A molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell. Receptors bind specific substances (e.g. drug molecules) and one or more corresponding cellular effects occurs as a result of this drug-receptor interaction.

Steady state
The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose.

Substrates
Substances on which an enzyme acts

Synergistic effects
drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone (1+1>2)

Therapeutic drug monitoring
The process of measuring drug peak and trough levels to gauge the level of a patient’s drug exposure and allow adjustment of dosages with the goals of maximizing therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity.

Therapeutic effects
the desired or intended effect of a particular medication

Therapeutic index
The ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug

Tolerance
Reduced response to a drug after prolonged use

Toxic
The quality of being poisonous

Toxicity
the condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities

Toxicology
the study of poisons, including toxic drug effects and applicable treatments

Trade Name
The commercial name given to a product by its manufacturer

Trough level
the lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring.

What is a medication error? Any preventable adverse drug events involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional; they may or may not cause the patient harm. What is an adverse drug event? Any undesirable occurrence related …

agonists medication that binds to the receptor site and stimulates the function of that site; drug that mimics a function of the body. antagonists medication that binds at receptor sites to prevent other medication from binding to those same sites. …

True All drugs have some type of adverse effect(s) adverse effects too much of a therapeutic effect; other pharmacodynamic effects of the drug WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

Addictive effects Drug interactions in which the effects of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drug given alone. For example, 1 + 1 = …

Any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of a living organism. Drug The broadest term for the study or science of drugs. Pharmacology WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

Absorption Uptake of medications for distribution in the body through or across tissues Active ingredient Medicinal ingredient in a pure, undiluted form of the chemical that has effects on body functions WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy