– Cranial nerves.
– Motor function (grip tests, walking, gate, etc.).
– Sensory Function.
– Cognition (talks about donkeys and such instead of answering with an appropriate response).
– Mood and Affect (Spouse has died, but they’re acting giddy and happy. This is an altered affect.).
– Involuntary movements, symmetry of muscles.
3+ = Brisk, normal.
2+ = Normal.
1+ = Hypoactive.
0+ = None.
– Motor function.
Perfusion (capillary refill).
* Probably don’t need to know this.
83 + 2(50) = 83 + 100 = 183.
183/3 = 61mm HG.
Another popular mnemonic for this rhythm, and I swear I’m not making this up, is:
F**k!… you’re screwed.
One beat… two beats.
Once again, and I’m not making this up (YouTube it), an alternative is:
Well f**k… you!
Two beats… one beat.
– Medications: including OTC and herbal supplements.
– Surgery or other previous treatments.
– Risk factors, such as smoking.
– Ask about allergies.
– Ask about diet.
– Ask about weight today versus weight on year ago.
– Ask if eating causes SOB.
– Orthostatic (postural) BPs should be measured while the patient is lying, sitting and standing. Normally there is a reduction of 11mm Hg in the SBP and 3mm Hg DBP.
– Hair distribution.
– Venous patterns.
– Clubbing of nail beds.
– Prominent pulsations of the neck veins.
– Jugular vein distention (JvD).
– Erb’s Point.
– Posterior Tibial.
– Dorsalis Pedis.
– Cardiac valves are thicker from lipid accumulation.
– The number of pacemaker cells in the SA Node becomes decreased.
– Pulse pressure widens.
– Capillary refill < 3 sec. - Thorax symmettric. - PMI not visible. - No JVD with patient @ 45 degree angle.
2) And what two tests measure the efficiency of diffusion?
2) Efficiency measured by: ABG’s and Pulse Oximetry.
Is diffusion is considered internal or external respiration?
Diffusion is internal.
Gas exchange in the lungs is referred to as external respiration as one side of the respiratory membrane – that is, the alveolar air – is actually outside of the body. Diffusion is all on the inside of the body.
– I < E (2:3) - expiratory sounds last longer than inspiratory sounds.
– Inspiration is equal to expiration (1:1).
– Pleural friction rub.
– Rhonchi (snoring sound).
– Stridor (an abnormal, high-pitched, musical breathing sound caused by a blockage in the throat or voice box).
– Absent breath sounds.
– The AP diameter is increased, chest appears barrel-shaped.
– May use accessory muscles when breathing.
– Decreased functional alveoli & elastin, less tolerant for exertion.
– Less forceful cough & less cilia.
– More gradual response to changes in blood oxygen or carbon dioxide level.