Nursing Cardiology

Which heart sound could sound like “Ten-nes-see” and is also known as the atrial gallop?
4th Heart Sound or S4

Which heart sound could sound like “Ken-tuc-ky” and is also known as the ventricular gallop?
3rd Heart Sound or S3

Which heart sound is the loudest at the apex?
1st Heart Sound or S1

Which heart sound is the loudest at the base?
2nd Heart Sound or S2

It is the low-pitched sound which coincides with the late diastolic filling of the ventricle due to atrial contraction.
4th Heart Sound or S4

S1 noise is heard when which valves close?
Tricuspid Valve and Mitral Valve

S1 is heard when which valves open silently?
Aortic Valve and Pulmonary Valve

S2 noise is heard when which valves close?
Aortic Valve and Pulmonary Valve

S2 is heard when which valves open silently?
Tricuspid Valve and Mitral Valve

The lub sound in Lub-Dub is also known as?
1st Heart Sound or S1

The dub sound in Lub-Dub is also known as?
2nd Heart Sound or S2

What does the mnemonic, “toilet paper my ass” for blood flow through the heart represent?
Tricuspid Valve, Pulmonary Valve, Mitral Valve, Aortic Valve

APE To Man
Aortic Pulmonary Erb’s Point Tricuspid Mitral

What is the significance of Erb’s point in cardiology?
Erb’s point refers to the 3rd intercostal space on the left sternal border where the 2nd heart sound caused by semilunar valves — Aortic (A) and Pulmonary / Pulmonic (P) is best auscultated.

Where is Erb’s point located?
3rd intercostal space on the left sternal border.

The period between S1 and S2 is called?
Systole

The period between S2 and S1 is called
Diastole

Define systole.
sys·to·le is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the myocardium contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries.

Define diastole.
di·as·to·le is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the myocardium relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood.

Define P-wave.
Define P-wave.
The P-wave in the EKG represents atrial depolarization, which results in atrial contraction.

Define PR interval.
The time an electrical impulse takes to reach the ventricles from the SA node. 0.12 – 0.20 seconds.

Define QRS complex.
Define QRS complex.
The QRS complex corresponds to the depolarization of the right and left ventricles prior to contraction.

Define QRS waveform.
The time an electrical impulse takes to travel through the ventricles. 0.06 – 0.12 seconds.

Define T-wave.
Define T-wave.
The T-wave in the EKG represents ventricular repolarization (or recovery).

Define absolute refractory period.
The interval from the beginning of the QRS complex to the apex of the T-wave is referred to as the absolute refractory period.

Define S-T segment.
Define S-T segment.
the segment between the QRS complex and the T-wave

Define U-wave.
Define U-wave.
The U-wave is typically small, and, by definition, follows the T wave on an electrocardiogram. U waves are thought to represent repolarization of the papillary muscles or Purkinje fibers that are not always seen.

How much time does one large box represent on EKG graph paper?
200 milliseconds or 0.2 second

One minute is represented by how many large boxes on EKG graph paper?
300 large boxes.

How much time does on small box represent on EKG graph paper?
40 milliseconds or 0.04 second

How much time does

Systolic murmurs include:
aortic stenosis, pulmonic stenosis, mitral regergitation, tricuspid regergitation, and mitral valve prolapse

Diastolic murmurs
mitral stenosis, tricuspid stenosis, aortic regergitation, and tricuspid regergitation

T/F Left-sided valve problems in the heart are more common than right-sided valve problems?
True

N O P Q R S T
Number of Pains
Origin of Pain
Palliate and Potentiate
Quality
Radiation
Severity/Suffering
Timing and Trend

Pain history mnemonic – OLD CARTS P Characterization of pain:
Onset
Location
Duration

Character
Aggravating/relieving
Radiation
Timing
Severity

Prior

Korotkoff sounds 
Ko·rot·koff
Korotkoff sounds
Ko·rot·koff
Arterial sounds heard through a stethoscope applied to the brachial artery distal to the cuff of a sphygmomanometer that change with varying cuff pressure and that are used to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Hair
Brittle, Dry – Think poor nutrition, possibly due to cardiac or vascular insufficiency.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Eyes
Vascular changes may be a result of ↑BP. Raised yellow-orange plaque under eyelids. May indicate chronic serum cholesterol elevation.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Lips/Tongue
Blue-tinged? Think cyanosis; Dry? Dehydration.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Jugular Vein
Distended when patient at 45° angle? Think hypervolemia, right-sided heart failure, pericardial tamponade or constrictive pericarditis.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Chest
Auscultate; If rales consider left-sided heart failure. Assess rate, rhythm, and presence of murmurs.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Blood Pressure
BP over 135/85 may indicate hypertension.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Abdomen
Fluid accumulation (ascites) or enlarged, tender liver may indicate right-sided heart failure. Pulsating mass may indicate – AAA.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Skin
Dry, cool – May be from poor nutrition. Blue-tinged indicates cyanosis. Pallor may suggest anemia or ↓ circulation.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Sacrum
Check for edema and pressure areas in immobilized clients.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Nails
Clubbing may indicate chronic low O2 saturation, as in congenital cardiac or pulmonary disease. Thick nails – poor nutrition and impaired O2 delivery.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Lower Extremities
Absence of hair and thin skin are signs of poor circulation.

Head to Toe Cardiac Clues
Legs/Ankles/Feet
Check for edema, presences of pulses, ↓ sensation, pressure areas.

Edema 4-Point Scale
Edema 4-Point Scale

Pulse 4-Point Scale
Pulse 4-Point Scale

Heart location in the middle of the thorax between the two lung apex deviation to the left Heart chambers right atrium , left atrium ( two upper chambers ) right ventricle and left ventricle( two lower chambers WE WILL WRITE …

Common carotid artery Common carotid artery WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Marginal branch of RCA Posterior interventricular branch of the RCA = posterior interventricular artery Anterior …

aorta largest artery/blood vessel in the body inferior vena cava vein brings blood from the lower body regions and empties into the right atrium WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

How many chambers does the human heart have? 4 2x Atria (Atrium’s) 2x Ventricles How many valves does the human heart have? 4 Tricuspid Valve Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve Pulmonary Semilunar Valve Aortic Semilunar Valve WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

A client has been diagnosed with pericarditis. Which layers of the heart are affected with this illness? a. Between the pericardium and the mediastinum b. Between the pericardium and the myocardium c. Between the myocardium and the mediastinum d. Between …

Aorta The largest artery in the body aortic valve the valve between the left ventricle and the aortaa WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample arteriole small blood …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy