Nervous System Chapter 10

acetylcholine
neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells

afferent nerve
carries messages torward the brain and spinal cord

arachnoid membrane
middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

astrocyte
type of glial cell that transports water and salts from the capillaries

autonomic nervous system
nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs

axon
microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell

blood-brain barrier
protective separation between the blood and the brain cells

brainstem
posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord

cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

cell body
part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus

central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord

cerebellum
posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance

cerebral cortex
outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain

cerebrospinal fluid
circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord

cerebrum
largest part of the brain (responsible for voluntary muscular activity)

cranial nerves
twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck

dendrite
microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse

dura mater
thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and the spinal cord

efferent nerve
carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord

ependymal cell
glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form the cerebrospinal fluid

ganglion
collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

glial cell
supportive connective nerve cell that doesnt carry out nervous impulses

gyrus
sheet of nerve cells that produce a round ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex

hypothalamus
portion of the brain beneath the thalamus

medulla oblongata
part of brain just above the spinal cord

meninges
three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

microglial cell
phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system

motor nerve
carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs

myelin sheath
covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell

nerve
macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses

neuron
nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body

neurotransmitter
chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell

oligodendroglial cell
glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons

parasympathetic nerves
involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions

parenchyma
essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system

peripheral nervous system
nerves outside the brain and spinal cord

pia mater
thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges

plexus
large, interlacing network of nerves

pons
part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain

receptor
organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves

sciatic nerve
nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot

sensory nerve
carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor

spinal nerves
thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord

stimulus
agent of change in the internal or external environment that evokes a response

stroma
connective and supporting tissue of an organ

suclus
depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex

sympathetic nerves
autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntary in times of stress

synapse
space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells

thalamus
main relay center of the brain

vagus nerve
teeth cranial nerve

ventricles of the brain
canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid

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acetylcholine neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells afferent nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve) (afferent comes from af- (a form of ad-, meaning toward) and -ferent (meaning carrying)) WE WILL WRITE A …

The peripheral nervous system comprises of all nerves located outside the brain and the spinal cord. The system comprises of sense organs that are used to detect stimuli from inside and outside the body. There are also some special sense …

Acetylcholine neurotransmitter chemical releases at the ends of the nerve cells. Afferent nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves). Afferent comes from af-a form of ad-, meaning toward and-fernt meaning carrying WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

cauda equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord ventricles of the brain Canals in the interior of the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Central Nervous System/ Spinal Cord WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample The central nervous system is one of the two main divisions of the human nervous system. …

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