NCLEX PN practice questions 2016 pharmacology

a nurse is preparing a pt for a procedure requiring conscious sedation. The nurse will administer which short acting benzodiazepine?

1 chlordiazepoxide
2. diazepam
3. lorazepam
4. midazolam

Midazolam is used for conscious sedation for medical prcedures. It has a short half life compared to the other options.

How do benzodiazepines work?
the increase the activity of GABA, a common neruo. trans. in the brain. Through this action they promote a calming effect, relax skeletal muscles, and induce sleep.

A pt with hyperthyroidism is placed on propylthiouracil to reduce thyroid hormone synthesis. The pt asked the nurse when the drug with start working. What should the nurses response be?
1-3 weeks
1-5 days
2-3 months
4-6 weeks
1-3 weeks

the theraputic effect of propylthiouracil has an onest of 10-21 days and peak at 6- 10 weeks.

Regular insulin onset peak duration?
onset 30 min
peak 2-4 hours
duration 8-12 hours

A nurse preparing to admin. regular insulin, 10 units SQ before mealtime. How long before mealtime should the nurse administer the insulin.
30 minutes

A pt with testicular cancer is admin. ciplatin. The nurse concludes that the patient is have a side effect based on what finding?

confusion
htn
increased appetite
increaed creatinine

increased creatinine

Common s/e of cisplatin?
nephrotoxicity
ototoxicity
n/v
anorexia
electrolyte imbalances
anemia and bone marrow suppression

a pt is prescribed tamoxifen 20 mg PO twice a day for newly dx metastatic breast c/a. While reinforcing education to the patient, the nurse should emphasize which possible s/e?

arhythmias
hot flashes
hyperglycemia
ototoxicity

Hot flashes

S/e of tamoxifen?
hot flashes
vaginal bleeding
amenorhhea
menstrual changes
n/v
rash

An eldery pt is prescribed ciprofloxacin for the tx of UTI. The nurse should inform the pt of which potentially serious adverse effect?

a fib
constipation
ototoxicity
tendon rupture

tendon rupture

Ciprofloaxcin and other fluorquinolon antibiotics have a black box warning for the increased risk of?
tendon rupture

If patient is taking ciprofloaxin and experiences pain and edema around the tendon, what may this mean? What should the nurse instruct the patient too do?
This may lead to a tendon rupture
The nurse should instruct the patient to rest is they experience tendon pain or edema

A patient with diabetes taking acarbose should be assessed for which potential adverse reactions?

anemia
elevated AST and ALT
Elevated creatinine
Hypoglycemia

elevated AST and ALT

Acarbose has been shown to ause liver damage, leading to an evaluation of serum transaminases

a pt is prescribed dexamethasone to reduce cerebral edema after a MVA. Which of the following assessment findings should the nurse expect if this tx is effective?

decreased urine output
increase b/p
increased response to stimulus
decreased respiration

increased response to stimuli

dexamethasone is corticosteroid that reduces inflammation in the brain. When effectiveness is achieved, the pts neruo status should improve

Common s/e of corticosteroids include?
irritability
acne
dyspepsia
anxiety
insomnia
hyperglycemia

a nurse is caring for a crital burn pr. The pt is suffering from intense pain and requires medication. The nurse should expect the dr to prescribe which of the fallowing?
1. fentanyl patch
2hydromorphone, intranasal
3 morphine sulfate, IV
4 oxycodone via NG tube
morphine sulfate, IV

A pt taking lovastatin for hyperlipidemia should be instructed to immediately inform the dr if:

GI upset occurs
she become a vegitarian
she becomes confused
she is pregnant or is planning to become pregnant

she is pregnant or is planning to become pregnant

Stats are what pregnancy category?
Category X

MNEMONIC: Since statins are HMG-CoA inhibitors the side effect mnemonic is: HMG- CoA
Hepatotoxicity/ Headache
Myalgia/myopathy
GI symptoms (constipation, pain and flatulence)
CPK increased
A fib

A patient with TB is taking rafampin, ethambutol, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide. The pt states that his contact lenses are stained orange after each use. How should the nurse respond?

Admin an IM injection of vitamin K immediately to promote coagulation

call the dr, this is a serious s/e

reassure the pt that this is a normal adverse effect

tell the patient to d/c the medication

reassure the pt that this is a normal adverse effect

rafampin may cause body fluids to become red or orange. Urine, tears, sweat, sputum, and feces can all be affected. This is a benign s/e.

MNEMONIC
Osmotic Diuretics: MIG
mannitol

isosorbide

glycerol

A nurse is admin IV odansetron for the tx of nausea. Which of the following indicates that the patient is experiencing an s/e of the medication?

braycardia
headache
hyperkalemia
HTN

Headache

Common s/e of ondansetron?
headache
dizziness
diarrhea
constipation
fever

A pt diagnosed with a PE is on a IV heparin infusion. What s/e should the nurse closely monitor for?.

hyperglycemia
lethargy
SOB
tarry stools

tarry stools

heparin is an anticoagulant that inhibits the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Pts on an anticoagulant drug such as heparin are at an increased risk for bleeding

Signs of bleeding include?
ecchymoses
tarry stools
mucosal bleeding
pink/red tinged urine.

The nurse is caring for a patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer. The nurse knows the best way to manage pain is to:

administer pain medication as needed

administer pain medication on a routine basis

administer pain medication without the patient knowing

provide non stimulating environment

administer pain medication on a routine basis

A nurse is caring for a patient recieving ethosuximide for the tx of epilepsy. Which symptoms would indicate to the nurse that the patient is experiencing a s/e of this medication?

blurred vision
constipation
urinary retention
diarrhea

diarrhea

Client is starting to take hydrocodone with acetaminophen tablets for pain. What information should be included? Tablets should not be crushed or chewed A nurse is preparing to administer ciprofloxacin 15mg/kg PO every 12 hours to a child who weighs …

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A nurse is providing teaching to a client who has a prescription for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Which of the following instructions should the nurse include in the teaching? Drink 8 to 10 glasses of water daily A nurse at an urgent care …

The physician has ordered an I.V. of 5% dextose in Lactated Ringers solution at 125mL/hr. The I.V. tubing available delivers 10 drops per mL. At how many drops per minute will the Lactated Ringers infuse? The nurse correctly administers the …

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A nurse is assessing a client who is taking propylthiouracil for the treatment of Graves disease. Which of the following findings should the nurse identify as as an indication of the medication has been effective? Increase in ability to focus …

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