M/S Disorders

1.What is the chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction?
acetylcholine

2. What structure facilitates joint movement?
articulating cartilage

3. Which of the following would identify an open or compound fracture?
The skin and soft tissue is exposed at the fracture site.

4. Which of the following describes a Colles’ fracture?
The distal radius is broken.

. During the fracture healing process, the hematoma:
is the structure into which granulation tissue grows

When a fracture is healing, the procallus or fibrocartilaginous callus:
serves as a splint across the fracture site

7. What is a sign of a dislocation?
deformity at a joint

8. All of the following predispose to osteoporosis EXCEPT:
weight-bearing activity

9. Which of the following statements does NOT apply to osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is always a primary disorder.

10. How is Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy inherited?
an X-linked recessive gene

11. Which of the following is correct about Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy?
There is difficulty climbing stairs or standing up at 2 to 3 years of age.

12. Which of the following is characteristic of osteoarthritis?
Degeneration of articulating cartilage occurs in the large joints.

13. What is a typical characteristic of the pain caused by osteoarthritis?
increased with weight-bearing and activity

14. What limits joint movement in osteoarthritis?
the osteophytes and irregular cartilage surface

15. What is the prognosis for osteoarthritis?
Damage is irreversible and usually progressive.

16. What is the typical joint involvement with rheumatoid arthritis?
bilateral small joints, symmetrical progression to other joints

17. What is the basic pathology of rheumatoid arthritis?
a systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction

18. How is the articular cartilage damaged in rheumatoid arthritis?
enzymatic destruction by the pannus

19. How does the joint appear during an exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis?
red, warm, swollen, and tender to touch

20. Why does ankylosis and deformity develop in rheumatoid arthritis?
skeletal muscle hypertrophies

21. Systemic effects of rheumatoid arthritis are manifested as:
nodules in various tissues, severe fatigue, and anorexia

22. What is a common effect of long-term use of glucocorticoids to treat rheumatoid arthritis?
osteoporosis

3. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis differs from the adult form in that:
Rheumatoid factor is not present in JRA, but systemic effects are more severe.

24. Which of the following may precipitate an attack of gout?
a sudden increase in serum uric acid levels

25. Where does inflammation usually begin in an individual with ankylosing spondylitis?
sacroiliac joints and progression up the spine

26. What is a common outcome of fibrosis, calcification, and fusion of the spine in ankylosing spondylitis?
rigidity, postural changes, and osteoporosis

27. Which statement applies to menisci?
They prevent excessive movement of joints.

28. Which factors delay healing of bone fractures?
2. prolonged inflammation and ischemia 3. presence of osteomyelitis-c

29. What is the likely immediate result of fat emboli from a broken femur?
pulmonary inflammation and obstruction

30. Which statement defines a sprain? A tear in a ___________:
ligament

31. What is the distinguishing feature of primary fibromyalgia syndrome?
specific trigger points for pain and tenderness

32. Ewing’s sarcoma metastasizes at an early stage to the:
lungs

33. Immovable joints are called:
synarthroses

Rickets results from:
a deficit of Vitamin D and phosphates

35. Paget’s disease often leads to:
both a and b

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Which of the following cells produce new bone? a. osteocytes b. osteoblasts c. osteoclasts d. stem cells from the bone marrow osteoblasts What is the chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction? a. norepinephrine b. GABA c. serotonin d. acetylcholine …

Osteoarthritis is primarily caused by the erosion of joint cartilage, which causes bones to rub or grate against each other. Osteoarthritis primarily affects synovial joints in which synovial fluid plays the important role of nourishing the avascular articular cartilage, providing …

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As we age we deal with many unpleasant side effects. Some side effects and diseases come with the territory while others are preventable. In this paper we have a closer look at the causes of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and muscular atrophy. …

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