A 29 y/o man has a severe headache and nausea that has gradually worsened over the past 12 hours. He is cao x4 and tells you that his physician gave him a diagnosis of migraine headaches. He further tells you that he has taken numerous different medications, but none of them seem to help. His BP is 132/74 mm Hg, his pulse is 110 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 20 breaths/min and adequate. In addition to high-flow o2, further treatment should include:
Dimming the lights in the back of the ambulance and transporting without lights and siren

A generalized seizure is characterized by
severe twitching of all the body muscles

a patient whose speech is slurred and difficult to understand is experiencing

a patient with AMS is
not thinking clearly or is incapable of being aroused.

A patient without a history of seizures experiences a sudden convulsion. The LEAST likely cause of this seizure is:

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when:
the normal body processes destroy a clot in a cerebral artery.

An area of swelling or enlargement in a weakened arterial wall is called:
an anyeurism

During the primary assessment of a semiconscious 70-year-old woman, you should:
ensure a patent airway and support ventilation as needed.

Individuals with chronic alcoholism are predisposed to intracranial bleeding and hypoglycemia secondary to abnormalities in the:

Interruption of cerebral blood flow may result from all of the following, EXCEPT:
cerebral vasodialation

the left cerebral hemisphere controls
the right side of the body

The most basic functions of the body, such as breathing, blood pressure, and swallowing, are controlled by the:
brain stem

the spinal cord exits the cranium through the
foramen magnum

What GCS score would you assign to a patient who responds to painful stimuli, uses inappropriate words, and maintains his or her arms in a flexed position?

When assessing arm movement of a patient with a suspected stroke, you should:
ask the patient to close his or her eyes during the assessment.

When caring for a patient with documented hypoglycemia, you should be MOST alert for:
a seizure

When you are obtaining a medical history from the family of a suspected stroke patient, it is MOST important to determine:
when the patient last appeared normal

Which of the following conditions is NOT a common cause of seizures?
severe hypovolemia

Which of the following medications is NOT used to treat patients with a history of seizures?
hydromorphone (Dilaudid)

Which of the following MOST accurately describes a simple partial seizure?
a seizure that begins in one extremity

Which of the following MOST accurately describes what the patient will experience during the postictal state that follows a seizure?
confusion and fatigue

You are assessing a 49 y/o man who, according to his wife, experienced a sudden, severe headache and then passed out. He is unresponsive and has slow, irregular breathing. His BP is 190/94 mm Hg and his pulse rate is 50 beats/min. His wife tells you that he has hypertension and diabetes. He has MOST likely experienced:
a ruptured cerebral artery

You are caring for a 70 y/o woman with signs and symptoms of an acute stroke. She is conscious, has secretions in her mouth, and is breathing at a normal rate with adequate depth. You should:
suction her oropharynx and give her 100% o2

You are caring for a semiconscious man with left-sided paralysis. His airway is patent and his respirations are 14 breaths/min with adequate tidal volume. Treatment for this patient should include:
oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask, left lateral recumbent position, and transport.

You respond to a residence for a child who is having a seizure. Upon arrival at the scene, you enter the residence and find the mom holding her 2 y/o boy. The child is conscious and crying. According to the mother, the child had been running a high fever and then experienced a seizure that lasted approximately 3 minutes. You should:
transport the child to the hospital and reassure the mother en route.

A 30 y/o woman with a Hx of alcoholism presents with severe upper abdominal pain and is vomiting large amounts of bright red blood. Her skin is cool, pale, and clammy; her heart rate is 120 beats/min and weak; and her BP is 70/50 mm Hg. Your MOST immediate action should be to:
protect her airway from aspiration

A 35 y/o mildly obese woman is complaining of localized pain in the RUQ with referred pain to the right shoulder. The MOST likely cause of her pain is:
acute cholecystitis

An important aspect in the treatment of a patient with severe abdominal pain is to:
provide emotional support en route to the hospital

Chronic renal failure is a condition that:
is often caused by hypertension or diabetes

Erosion of the protective layer of the stomach or duodenum secondary to overactivity of digestive juices results in:
an ulcer

Esophageal varices MOST commonly occur in patients who:
drink a lot of alcohol

For a patient with a gastrointestinal complaint, it is MOST important for the EMT to _________.
identify weather the patient requires rapid transport

In contrast to the parietal peritoneum, the visceral peritoneum:
is supplied by nerves of the autonomic nervous system, which are less able to localize pain or sensation.

In the presence of ileus, the only way the stomach can empty is by:

Injury to a hollow abdominal organ would MOST likely result in:
leakage of contents into the abdominal cavity.

Pain that is localized to the lower back and/or lower abdominal quadrants is MOST suggestive of:
an aortic anyuerism

Pain that radiates to the right lower quadrant from the umbilical area, nausea and vomiting, and anorexia are MOST indicative of:

The MOST important treatment for a patient with severe abdominal pain and signs of shock includes:
transporting the patient without delay

The parietal peritoneum lines the:
walls of the abdominal cavity

Urinary tract infections are more common in ____________.

When assessing a patient with abdominal pain, you should:
palpate the abdomen in a clockwise direction beginning with the quadrant after the one the patient indicates is painful.

Which of the following helps filter the blood and has no digestive function?

Which of the following is correct about the secondary assessment for a high-priority patient?
You may not have time to complete a secondary assessment.

Which of the following may help reduce your patient’s nausea?
low-flow oxygen

Which of the following organs assists in the filtration of blood, serves as a blood reservoir, and produces antibodies?

Which of the following organs would MOST likely bleed profusely if injured?

You are dispatched to an apartment complex for a young man with abdominal pain. Your priority upon arriving at the scene should be to:
asses the scene for potential hazards

You are transporting a 49-year-old man with “tearing” abdominal pain. You are approximately 30 miles away from the closest hospital. During your reassessment, you determine that the patient’s condition has deteriorated significantly. You should:
consider requesting a rendezvous with ALS unit

Your patient complains of abdominal pain that occurs mostly at night or after eating fatty foods. You should suspect ____________.

Your patient complains of chronic “burning” stomach pain that improves after eating. You should suspect:
peptic ulcer disease

A 19 y/o man has a chief complaint of “not feeling right.” His insulin and a syringe are on a nearby table. The patient says he thinks he took his insulin and cannot remember whether he ate. He is also unable to tell you the time or what day it is. The glucometer reads “error” after several attempts to assess his blood glucose level. In addition to administering oxygen, you should:
contact medical control and administer oral glucose

A 28 y/o woman is found to be responsive to verbal stimuli only. Her roommate states that she was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and has had difficulty controlling her blood sugar level. She further tells you that the patient has been urinating excessively and her condition has progressively worsened over the last 24 to 36 hours. On the basis of this patient’s clinical presentation, you should suspect that she
is significantly hyperglycemic

A 29-year-old woman presents with confusion and disorientation. Her respirations are rapid and shallow and her pulse is 120 beats/min and thready. She is markedly diaphoretic and has an oxygen saturation of 89%. You should:
provide ventilatory support

A 37-year-old woman with a history of diabetes presents with excessive urination and weakness of 2 days’ duration. You apply 100% oxygen and assess her blood glucose level, which is 320 mg/dL. If this patient’s condition is not promptly treated, she will MOST likely develop:
acidosis and dehydration

A 75-year-old man with type 1 diabetes presents with chest pain and a general feeling of weakness. He tells you that he took his insulin today and ate a regular meal approximately 2 hours ago. You should treat this patient as though he is experiencing:
a heart attack

A patient with an altered mental status, high blood glucose levels, and deep, rapid breathing may have a condition known as __________.
diabetic ketoacidosis

A patient with hypoglycemia will often present with which of the following signs/symptoms?
pale, cool, and clammy skin

An acute accelerated drop in the hemoglobin level, which is caused by red blood cells breaking down at a faster rate than normal, occurs during a(n) __________ crisis.

assessment of a patient with hypoglycemia will most likely reveal

During assessment of an unconscious patient with diabetes, the primary visible difference between hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is the:
rate and depth of breathing

During your assessment of a 19-year-old man, you are told that he is being treated with factor VIII. This indicates that:
he has hemophillia A

Excessive eating caused by cellular “hunger” is called:

Glipizide, a non-insulin-type medication, is another name for:
glucotrol glutose

glutose is a trade name for
oral glucose

Hypoglycemic crisis tends to develop more often and more severely in children because:
they do not always eat correctly and on schedule

insulin functions in the body by
insulin functions in the body by
enabling glucose to enter the cells

Proper procedure for administering oral glucose to a patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
ensuring the absence of a gag reflex

the main function of the endocrine system is to
maintain homeostasis

The main types of sickle cell crises that a patient may experience include _________.
All of the above (aplastic crisis, vaso-occlusive crisis, splenic sequestation crisis)

the signs and symptoms of insulin shock are the result of
decreased blood glucose levels

the two main types of cells contained in blood are called
erythrocytes and leukocytes

type 1 diabetes:
is a condition in which no insulin is produced by the body

which of the following statements regarding diabetic coma is correct?
diabetic coma typically develops over a period of hours or days

which of the following statements regarding sickle cell disease is correct?
In sickle cell disease, the red blood cells are abnormally shaped and are less able to carry oxygen.

You respond to a movie theater for a 70-year-old man who is confused. His wife tells you he has type 2 diabetes but refuses to take his pills. Your assessment reveals that the patient is diaphoretic, tachycardic, and tachypneic. Initial management for this patient should include:
applying a nonrebreathing mask at 15 L/min.

A 38-year-old woman was bitten by fire ants while at the park with her children. Your primary assessment reveals that she is semiconscious, has profoundly labored breathing, and has a rapid, thready pulse. She has a red rash on her entire body and her face is very swollen. You should:
assist her ventilations with 100% oxygen

After administering 0.3 mg of epinephrine via auto-injector to a 22-year-old woman with an allergic reaction, you note improvement in her breathing and dissipation of her hives. However, she is still anxious and tachycardic. You should:
monitor her closely, but recall that tachycardia and anxiety are side effects of epinephrine

Anaphylaxis caused by stinging insects is typically an allergic reaction to ____________ rather than the bite or sting itself.
All of the above (injected posin, irritating toxin, deadly vemon)

At the site of the injury, signs and symptoms of an animal or insect bite or sting may include pain, localized heat, and a wheal, which appears as __________.
a large area of red, blotchy, skin

because the stinger of a honeybee remains in the wound after a sting:
the stinger can continue to inject venom for up to 20 minutes

Care for a victim of an immunologic emergency who is severely hypotensive should include which of the following?
Apply high-flow oxygen therapy, place the patient in a shock position and help maintain the patient’s body temperature.

Chemicals that are responsible for the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction to a bee sting include:
histamines and leukotrienes

common side effects of epi include all of the following except:

common signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction include all of the following except:
drying of the eyes

epi is indicated for patients with an allergic reaction when
wheezing and hypotension are present

epi stimulates the ____ response, increasing BP and reliving bronchospasm
sympathetic response

immediately after giving epi you should
properly dispose of the syringe

most patients who die of anaphylaxis do so with in the first ____ minutes following exposure

the goal of invaders such as bacteria and viruses is to _–
use the body as a home

the two most common signs of anaphylaxis are
urticaria (hives) and wheezing

When an allergic reaction proceeds to life-threatening anaphylaxis, it will usually do so __________.
quickly within less than 30 minutes

Which of the following signs/symptoms are indicative of respiratory involvement of an allergic reaction?
tightness in the chest or throat

Which of the following statements regarding fire ants is correct?
fire ants often bite repeatedly

While auscultating breath sounds of a patient who was stung multiple times by a yellow jacket, you hear bilateral wheezing over all lung fields. This indicates:
narrowing of the bronchioles in the lungs

You have administered one dose of epinephrine to a 40-year-old woman to treat an allergic reaction that she experienced after being stung by a scorpion. Your reassessment reveals that she is still having difficulty breathing, has a decreasing mental status, and has a blood pressure of 80/50 mm Hg. You should:
request permission from medical control to give another dose of epinephrine

You respond to the residence of a 55-year-old woman with a possible allergic reaction to peanuts that she ate approximately 30 minutes ago. The patient is conscious and alert, but has diffuse urticaria and the feeling that she has a lump in her throat. As your partner applies oxygen to the patient, you should:
ask her if she was prescribed epinephrine

A 66-year-old man presents with bizarre behavior. His daughter states that he did not seem to recognize her and was very rude to her. The patient is conscious and has a patent airway and adequate breathing. You should:
ask the daughter how the father normally behaves

a behavioral crisis interferes with which of the following?
All of the above (daily living, what people consider normal in that community, dressing, eating, bathing they cant do)

a general impression of a patient is formed when the EMT:
at a distance when the patient is first seen

assessing BP and O2 for a patient with a behavioral crisis should be preformed if:
if it doesn’t worsen the patient’s emotional distress

Common causes of acute psychotic behavior include all of the following, EXCEPT:
alzheimer’s disease

Everyone exhibits some signs and symptoms of mental illness at some point in life ____________.
but that does not mean a person is mentally ill

General guidelines for treating a patient with a behavioral emergency include:
being prepared to spend extra time with the patient

In contrast to a behavioral crisis, a psychiatric emergency occurs when a person:
demonstrates agitation or violence or becomes a threat to himself or herself, or to others.

Law enforcement personnel request your assistance for a man who they pulled over for erratic driving. The patient became acutely violent while he was being questioned, which required one of the officers to subdue him with a Taser. When you arrive and assess the patient, you find that he is very agitated and is apparently experiencing hallucinations. His ctc is flushed and diaphoretic. You should:
limit physical contact with the patient as much as possible and avoid interrupting him if he is attempting to communicate with you.

organic brain syndrome is MOST accurately defined as:
a dysfunction of the brain caused by abnormal physical or physiologic function.

The first step in assessing a patient with a behavioral emergency is to:
ensure your own safety

The term “behavioral crisis” is MOST accurately defined as:
any reaction that interferes with activities of daily living or is deemed unacceptable by others.

The two basic categories of diagnosis that a physician will use for behavioral crises or psychiatric emergencies are ____________
physical and psychological

What is the most common misconception surrounding mental illness?
Feeling “bad” or “depressed” means that you must be “sick.”

When a psychiatric emergency arises, a patient is most likely to exhibit which of the following behaviors?
any behaviors that are a violent threat to the patient, EMTs, or others

When assessing a patient with a behavioral crisis, you should:
be direct and clearly state your intentions

Which of the following conditions or factors would be the LEAST likely to result in a change in behavior?
antihypertensive medications

Which of the following is a good guideline for physical examination of any patient?
avoid touching without permission

Which of the following is an example of a psychiatric emergency?
a person violently attacking their family

Which of the following is considered an organic brain syndrome?
Alzheimer disease

Which of the following statements regarding the physical examination of a patient with a behavioral problem is correct?
A physical examination for a behavioral problem may be difficult to perform but may provide clues to the patient’s state of mind and thought processes.

Which of the following terms applies to a state of delusion in which the patient is out of touch with reality?

Why might EMTs encounter a larger proportion of violent patients than the population at large?
EMTs respond to patients who, by definition, are having an emergency.

You are assessing a woman who is severely depressed. She states that it seems as though her entire world is crashing down around her. She further states that she has had frequent thoughts of suicide, but is not sure if she can actually go through with it. How should you manage this situation?
Ask the patient if she has developed a plan for suicide.

You receive a call for a domestic dispute. When you arrive at the scene, you find a young male standing on the front porch of his house. You notice that an adjacent window is broken. The patient has a large body, is clenching his fists, and is yelling obscenities at you. Which of the following findings is LEAST predictive of this patient’s potential for violence?
his large body

A 30-year-old male was rescued after being lost in the woods for approximately 18 hours. The outside temperature is 30°F (-1°C). He is immediately placed in the warmed ambulance, where you perform a primary assessment. He is unconscious, pale, and apneic. You should:
asses for a carotid pulse for 45 seconds

A person’s ability to shiver is lost when his or her body temperature falls below:
90°F (32°C).

All of the following snakes are pit vipers, EXCEPT for the:
coral snake

An air embolism associated with diving occurs when:
the diver holds his or her breath during a rapid ascent.

Breath-holding syncope is caused by a decreased stimulus to breathe and occurs when:
a swimmer hyperventilates prior to entering the water.

Compared to adults, infants and children are at higher risk for hypothermia for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
a relatively small surface area.

Geriatric patients are at a higher risk for heatstroke because:
circulation to the skin is reduced.

Geriatric patients, newborns, and infants are especially prone to hyperthermia because they:
exhibit poor thermoregulation.

In contrast to the brown recluse spider, the black widow spider:
is large and has a red-orange hourglass mark on its abdomen.

In order for sweating to be an effective cooling mechanism:
it must be able to evaporate from the body.

Shivering is a mechanism in which the body generates heat by:
increasing the metabolic rate.

Signs of late heatstroke include:
a weak, rapid, pulse

The body’s natural cooling mechanism, in which sweat is converted to a gas, is called:

The diving reflex may allow a person to survive extended periods of submersion in cold water secondary to:
bradycardia and a slowing of the metabolic rate.

The EMT must assume that any unwitnessed water-related incident is accompanied by:
possible spinal injury.

The MOST prominent symptom of decompression sickness is:
abdominal or joint pain.

To assess a patient’s general temperature, pull back on your glove and place the back of your hand on his or her skin at the:

Which of the following MOST accurately describes hyperthermia?
the body is exposed to more heat than it can lose.

Which of the following statements regarding lightning strikes is correct?
Lighting often results in a brief period of asystole that resolves spontaneously.

Which of the following would be the LEAST likely to occur in a patient with a core body temperature of between 89°F (32°C) and 92°F (33°C)?

While drinking beer with his friends near a creek,a male was bitten on the leg by an unidentified snake. The patient is conscious and alert and in no apparent distress. Your assessment of his leg reveals two small puncture marks with minimal pain and swelling. In addition to administering o2 and providing reassurance, care for this patient should include:
supine, splint, transport

You receive a call to a residence for a sick patient. Upon your arrival, you find the patient, a 53-year-old diabetic male, lying down on his front porch. His wife tells you that he had been mowing the lawn in the heat for the past 3 hours. The patient is confused and has hot, moist skin. His pulse is weak and thready, and his blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg. In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:
load him into the ambulance and begin rapid cooling interventions.

Your assessment of a 23-year-old female reveals a core body temperature of 93.4°F (34°C). She is conscious, answers your questions appropriately, is shivering, and complains of nausea. Her skin is cold and pale, her muscles appear rigid, and her respirations are rapid. In addition to monitoring her ABCs, administering oxygen, and turning up the heat in the back of the ambulance, you should:
place heat packs to her groin, axillae, and behind her neck; cover her with warm blankets; and avoid rough handling.

What is the reason for giving an epinephrine​ auto-injector in a​ life-threatening allergic​ reaction? It will help constrict the​ patient’s blood vessels and relax the airway passages. Your patient is a​ 59-year-old woman with a history of emphysema. Per​ protocol, …

What nursing diagnoses might relate to a patient who requires assessment of the peripheral neurovascular system? Acute Pain Ineffective Peripheral Tissue Perfusion What are some actual nursing diagnosis that would be appropriate for patients within the Area of Care, Neurological …

Which one of the following best describes a patient suffering an environmental emergency? Intoxicated male patient who collapsed in the snow and is complaining that he feels cold You are assessing a conscious but confused hunter who became lost in …

Which of the following findings does NOT indicate the potential for violence? A. Large physical body size B. Agitated or depressed C. Uncoordinated movements D. Withdrawn or detached A. Large physical body size When assessing a patient with bizarre behavior, …

A 52-year old woman was admitted with dyspnea and discomfort in her left chest with deep breaths. She has smoked for 35 years and recently lost over 10 pounds. Her vital signs on admission are: HR 112, BP 138/82, RR …

The nurse is reviewing laboratory results for the clinic patients to be seen today. Which patient meets the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus? A. A 48-year-old woman with a hemoglobin A1C of 8.4% B. A 58-year-old man with a fasting …

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