MIS chapter 5 terms

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MIS infrastructure
the plans for how a firm will build, deploy, use and share its data, processes, and MIS assets

hardware
the physical devices associated with a computer system

software
the set of instructions computer hardware executes to carry out specific tasks

network
a communications system created by linking two or more devices and establishing a standard methodology in which they can communicate

client
a computer designed to request information from a server

server
a computer dedicated to providing information in response to client requests

enterprise architect
a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, and able to provide the important bridge between MIS and the business

information MIS infrastructure
identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured

agile MIS infrastructure
includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals

sustainable MIS infrastructure
identifies ways that a company can grow in terms of computing resources while simultaneously becoming less dependent on hardware and energy consumption

backup
an exact copy of a system’s information

recovery
the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure that includes restoring the information backup

fault tolerance
the ability of a system to respond to unexpected failures or system crashes as the backup system immediately and automatically takes over with no loss of service

failover
a specific type of fault tolerance in which a redundant storage server offers an exact replica of the real-time data, and if the primary server crashes, the users are automatically directed to the secondary server or backup server

failback
occurs when the primary machine recovers and resumes operations, taking over from the secondary server

effects of disaster
disrupting communications, damaging physical infrastructures, halting transportation, blocking utilities

disaster recovery plan
a detailed process for recovering information or a system in the event of a catastrophic disaster

hot site
a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business

cold site
a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment but is a place where employees can move after a disaster

warm site
a separate facility with computer equipment that requires installation and configuration

disaster recovery cost curve
charts the costs to the company of the unavailability of information and technology, as well as the cost to the company of recovering from a disaster over time

emergency
sudden, unexpected event requiring immediate action due to potential threat to health and safety, the environment, or property

emergency preparedness
ensures that a company is ready to respond to an emergency in an organized, timely, and effective manner

business continuity planning (BCP)
details how a company recovers and restores critical business operations and systems after a disaster or extended disruption

business impact analysis
identifies all critical business functions and the effect that a specific disaster may have on them

emergency notification service
an infrastructure built for notifying people in the event of an emergency

technology failure
occurs when the ability of a company to operate is impaired because of a hardware, software, or data outage

incident
unplanned interruption of a service

incident management
the process responsible for managing how incidents are identified and corrected

technology recovery strategies
focus specifically on prioritizing the order for restoring hardware, software, and data across the organization that best meets business recovery requirements

accessibility
varying levels that define what a user can access, view, or perform when operating a system

administrator access
unrestricted access to the entire system

web accessibility
people with disabilities can use the web

web accessibility initiative (WAI)
brings together people from industry, disability organizations, government, and research labs from around the world to develop guidelines and resources to help make the web accessible to people with disabilities

availability
refers to the time frames when the system is operational

unavailable
when the system is not operating and cannot be used

high availability
when a system is continuously operational at all times

maintainability (flexibility)
refers to how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes

portability
the ability of an application to operate on different devices or software platforms, such as different operating systems

reliability (accuracy)
ensures that a system is functioning correctly and providing accurate information

vulnerability
a system weakness, such as a password that is never changed or a system left unattended that can be exploited by a threat

scalability
how well a system can scale up, or adapt to the increased demands of growth

performance
how quickly a system performs a process or transaction

capacity
the maximum throughput a system can deliver

capacity planning
future environmental infrastructure requirements to ensure high-quality system performance

usability
the degree to which a system is easy to learn and efficient and satisfying to use

serviceability
how quickly a third party can change a system to ensure it meets user needs and the terms of any contracts, including agreed levels of reliability, maintainability, or availability

Moore’s Law
the computer chip performance per dollar doubles every 18 months

sustainable/green MIS
the production, management, use, and disposal of technology in a way that minimizes damage to the environment

corporate social responsibility
a company’s acknowledged responsibility to society

clean computing
a subset of sustainable MIS, refers to the environmentally responsible use, manufacture, and disposal of technology products and computer equipment

green personal computer (PC)
built using environmentally friendly materials and designed to save energy

Ewaste
discarded, obsolete, or broken electronic devices

upcycle
reuses or refurbishes ewaste and creates a new product

sustainable MIS disposal
safe disposal of MIS assets at the end of their life cycle

energy consumption
the amount of energy consumed by business processes and systems

grid computing
a collection of computers, often geographically dispersed, that are coordinated to solve a common problem

smart grid
delivers electricity using two-way digital technology

virtualization
creates multiple virtual machines on a single computing device

storage virtualization
combines multiple network storage devices so they appear to be a single storage device

network virtualization
combines networks by splitting the available bandwidth into independent channels that can be assigned in real time to a specific device

server virtualization
combines the physical resources, such as servers, processors, and operating systems, from the applications

data center
facility used to house management information systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems

cloud computing
stores, manages, and processes data and applications over the internet rather than on a personal computer or server

multi-tenancy
a single instance of a system serves multiple customers

single-tenancy
each consumer or tenant must purchase and maintain an individual system

cloud fabric
software that makes possible the benefits of cloud computing, such as multi-tenancy

cloud fabric controller
an individual who monitors and provisions cloud resources, similar to a server administrator at an individual company

utility computing
offers a pay-per-use revenue model similar to a metered service such as gas or electricity

infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
delivers hardware networking capabilities, including the use of servers, networking and storage over the cloud using a pay-per-use revenue model

dynamic scaling
the MIS infrastructure can be automatically scaled up or down based on requirements

disaster recovery as a service
offers backup services that use cloud resources to protect applications and data from disruption caused by disaster

software as a service
delivers applications over the cloud using a pay-per-use revenue model

platform as a service
supports the development of entire systems, including hardware, networking, and applications, using a pay-per-use revenue model

public cloud
promotes massive, global, and industry-wide applications offered to the general public – customers are never required to manage, upgrade, or replace hardware or software

private cloud
serves only one customer or organization and can be located on the customer’s premises or off the customer’s premises – good for high data security concerns and valuing information privacy

community cloud
serves a specific community with common business models, security requirements, and compliance considerations

hybrid cloud
includes two or more private, public, or community clouds, but each cloud remains separate and is only linked by technology that enables data and application portability

cloud bursting
when a company uses its own computing infrastructure for normal usage and accesses the cloud when it needs to scale for peak load requirements, ensuring that a sudden spike in usage does not result in poor performance or system crashes

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