Microbio: Chapter 14

Pathology
The study of disease

Etiology
The study of the cause of a disease

Pathogenesis
the development of disease

Infection
colonization of the body by pathogens

Disease
An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally

Transient Microbiota
May be present for days, weeks, or months

Normal Microbiota
Permanently colonize the host

Symbiosis
the relationship between normal microbiota and the host

pH of the stomach
pH 1-2

commensalism
One organism benefits and the other is unaffected

Mutualism
both organisms benefit

parasitism
one organism benefits at the expense of the other

opportunistic pathogens
an organism that exists harmlessly as part of the normal human body environment and does not become a health threat until the body’s immune system fails.

microbial antagonism
Competition between microbes

normal microbiota protect the host by:
-occupying niches that pathogens might occupy
-Producing acids
-Producing bacteriocins (secretions that inhibit other microorganisms)

Probiotics
Live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect.

Koch’s Postulates
1. Identify cause (pathogen)
2. Isolate and culture the pathogen
3. Introduce pathogen into a healthy animal
4. Reisolate the pathogen from the inoculated animal.

Symptom
A change in body function that is FELT by a patient as a result of disease

Sign
A change in a body that can be MEASURED OR OBSERVED as a result of disease

Syndrome
A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease. (Example: AIDS)

Communicable Disease
A disease that is spread from one host to another via direct or indirect contact

Contagious Disease
A disease that is easily spread from one host to another. A disease can be both communicable and contagious.

Noncommunicable Disease
A disease that is not transmitted from one host to another (Example: Tetanus)

Incidence
Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time. Indicator of disease spread. New cases only.

Prevalence
Fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time. Accounts both new and old cases.

Sporadic Disease
Disease that occurs occasionally in a population. (Example: Measles)

Endemic Disease
Disease constantly present in a population

Epidemic Disease
Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time.

Pandemic Disease
worldwide epidemic (possible because of air travel)

Herd Immunity
Immunity in most of a population

Acute Disease
Symptoms develop rapidly, are short-term, and severe.

Chronic Disease
Disease develops slowly. Long-term, mild symptoms. Disease can cause more damage.

Subacute Disease
Symptoms between acute and chronic

Latent Disease
Disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive

Subclinical Infection
Characterized by the asymptomatic carrier of an infectious agent that can cause disease in others

Local Infection
Pathogens are limited to a small area of the body (Examples: wounds, UTIs)

Systemic Infection
An infection throughout the body. Tremendously dangerous.

Focal Infection
Systemic infection that began as a local infection. (Example: UTIs can move up to the kidneys)

Sepsis
toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection. VERY SERIOUS and LIFE-THREATENING. Lethal shock can occur.

Bacteremia
bacteria in the blood

Septicemia
growth of bacteria in the blood

Toxemia
toxins in the blood (Example: Tetanus)

Viremia
Viruses in the blood

Primary Infection
acute infection that causes the initial illness (influenza, UTI)

Secondary Infection
opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection. [influenza (primary)–>meningitis (secondary), UTI (primary)–>yeast infection (secondary)]

Subclinical Disease
No noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)

Factors that make the body more susceptible to disease:
-short urethra in females
-inherited traits, such as the sickle cell gene
-climate and weather
-fatigue/malnourishment (immunity decreases)
-age (immunity decreases)
-lifestyle
-chemotherapy

What are the 5 Stages of Disease?
Incubation Period, Prodromal Period, Period of Illness, Period of Decline, and Period of Convalescence

Incubation Period
1st stage of disease. No signs or symptoms.

Prodromal Period
2nd stage of disease. Mild signs or symptoms.

Period of Illness
3rd stage of disease. Most severe signs and symptoms.

Period of Decline
4th stage of disease. Signs and Symptoms.

Period of Convalescence
5th and final stage of disease. Recovery.

Human Carriers
May have inapparent infections or latent diseases

Zoonoses
Diseases transmitted between animals and sometimes to humans

Nonliving Reservoir
Causes infection through soil contamination. (Examples: Botulism, Tetanus)

Direct Contact Transmission
Requires close association between infected and susceptible host. i.e. touching, kissing, and using the same utensils

Indirect Contact Transmission
Spread by fomites.

fomites
inanimate objects–tissues, doorknobs, and cellphones

Droplet Transmission
Transmission via airborne droplets. i.e. sneezing, coughing, laughing and talking (commonly occurs on public transportation)

Vehicle Transmission
Transmission by an inanimate reservoir (food, water, air)

Vectors
Arthropods, especially fleas, ticks, and mosquitos. Transmit disease by 2 general methods: mechanical and biological transmission.

mechanical transmission by vector
arthropod carries pathogen on feet

biological transmission by vector
pathogen reproduces in vector

#1 vector for conjunctivitis (pink-eye)
the knat

Nosocomial Infections
Are acquired as a result of a hospital stay. Affect 5-15% of all hospital patients.

Epidemiology
The study of where and when diseases occur

CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
-Collects and analyzes epidemiological information in the US

John Snow (1848-1849)
Mapped the occurrence of cholera in London

Ignaz Semmelweis (1846-1848)
Showed that hand washing decreased the incidence of puerperal (childbirth) fever

Florence Nightingale (1858)
Showed that improved sanitation decreased the incidence of epidemic typhus

Descriptive Epidemiology
Collection and analysis of data (Snow)

Analytical Epidemiology
Comparison of a diseased group and a healthy group (Nightingale)

Experimental Epidemiology
Controlled experiments (Semmelweis)

Case Reporting
Healthcare workers report specified disease to local, state, and national offices.

Nationality notifiable diseases
Physicians are required to report occurrence

Morbidity
Incidence of a specific notifiable disease

Mortality
Deaths from notifiable diseases

Morbidity Rate
Number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given time period

Mortality Rate
Number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time.

In which type of symbiosis do both members benefit from their interaction?

a. mutualism
b. parasitism
c. commensalism
d. pathogenesis

a. mutualism

Which of the following types of disease correctly describes a disease that is constantly present within a population?

a. sporadic
b. endemic
c. epidemic
d. pandemic
e. zoonotic

b. endemic

Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms

a. are changes observed by the physician.
b. are changes felt by the patient.
c. are specific for a particular disease.
d. always occur as part of a syndrome.
e. none of the answers are correct

b. are changes felt by the patient

If a prodromal period exists for a certain disease, it should occur prior to

a. illness
b. convalescence
c. incubation
d. decline
e. none of the above

a. illness

Which of the following statements about biological vector transmission is FALSE?

a. houseflies are an important vector.
b. the pathogen may require the vector as a host.
c. the pathogen may be injected by the bite of the vector.
d. the pathogen may enter the host in the vector’s feces.
e. the pathogen reproduces in the vector.

a. houseflies are an important vector. (They cannot participate in BIOLOGICAL vector transmission, only MECHANICAL.)

A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of which form of disease transmission?

a. indirect contact
b. droplet
c. vehicle
d. vector

a. indirect contact

Which of the following does NOT contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?

a. lack of hand washing
b. antibiotic resistance
c. gram-negative cell walls
d. lapse in aseptic techniques
e. all of the above

c. gram-negative cell walls

Which of the following statements concerning pathology, infection, and disease is true?

a. Pathology refers to the study of structural and functional changes that occur in the body as a result of a disease
b. the term infection is synonymous with the term disease
c. microorganisms that make up the normal microbiota of an individual never cause disease.
d. the majority of microorganisms are pathogenic.

a. Pathology refers to the study of structural and functional changes that occur in the body as a result of a disease.

Which of the following statements about the development of infectious diseases is correct?

a. the prodromal period is characterized by very severe symptoms
b. the period of decline is the time when the infected individual’s health rapidly deteriorates.
c. the period of convalescence is the time during which the person regains health and fully recovers (back to the pre-disease state).
d. during the incubation period, the infected individual exhibits obvious signs of sickness.

c. the period of convalescence is the time during which the person regains health and fully recovers (back to the pre-disease state).

Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transient microbiota

a. cause diseases.
b. are found in a certain location on the host.
c. are acquired by direct contact.
d. are present for a relatively short time.

d. are present for a relatively short time.

Which of the following is NOT a condition that the normal microbiota of the skin have to tolerate?

a. glandular secretions with antimicrobial properties
b. acidic conditions
c. low moisture
d. body temperature

b. body temperature

Normal microbiota can benefit the host by preventing the overgrowth of harmful microorganisms. This is called

a. microbial antagonism.
b. symbiosis.
c. mutualism.
d. commensalism.

a. microbial antagonism

In commensalism,

a. both organisms benefit.
b. one organism benefits, and the other is unaffected.
c. both organisms are unaffected.
d. one organism benefits at the expense of the other.

b. one organism benefits, and the other is unaffected.

Elimination of the normal microbiota (by antibiotics, for example) can result in

a. fewer diseases.
b. immediate return of the normal microbiota.
c. increased susceptibility to disease.
d. absence of bacterial growth.

c. increased susceptibility to disease

Diseases caused by microorganisms that reside outside the body and produce disease only when introduced into the body, and are not transmitted from one host to another, are

a. communicable.
b. contagious.
c. nosocomial.
d. noncommunicable.

d. noncommunicable

A patient experiences pain and discomfort. These changes in the patient’s body function are referred to as

a. signs.
b. symptoms.
c. a syndrome.
d. infection.

b. symptoms

What term is used to describe a disease that develops slowly and is likely to recur for long periods?

a. acute
b. chronic
c. latent
d. subacute

b. chronic

An example of a contagious disease is

a. anthrax.
b. tetanus.
c. chickenpox.
d. rabies.

c. chickenpox

A disease acquired by many people in a given area in a relatively short period of time is called

a. pandemic.
b. epidemic.
c. sporadic.
d. endemic.

b. epidemic

Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor?

a. climate
b. nationality
c. lifestyle
d. preexisting illness

b. nationality

A period of illness is typically followed by a(n)

a. period of decline.
b. incubation period.
c. prodromal period.
d. period of convalescence.

a. period of decline

The stage of disease that is characterized by early and mild symptoms is called the

a. period of illness.
b. incubation period.
c. prodromal period.
d. period of convalescence.

c. prodromal period

Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet transmission?

a. botulism
b. influenza
c. pneumonia
d. pertussis

a. botulism

The spread of disease agents via contaminated water is an example of _____ transmission.

a. mechanical
b. direct contact
c. vehicle
d. biological

c. vehicle

Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to nosocomial infections?

a. compromised host
b. chain of transmission
c. normal microbiota on the patient
d. microorganisms in hospital environment

c. normal microbiota on the patient

What percentage of hospitalized patients acquire nosocomial infections?

a. 5-15%
b. 10-20%
c. 15-25%
d. 20-30%

a. 5-15%

What is the most common type of nosocomial infection?

a. lower respiratory infections
b. postoperative infections
c. bacteremia
d. urinary tract infections

d. urinary tract infections

Nosocomial infections are primarily transmitted through _____ transmission.

a. vehicle
b. contact
c. mechanical
d. biological

b. contact

Which of the following measures is NOT used to prevent nosocomial infections?

a. aseptic technique
b. frequent handwashing
c. increased use of antibiotics
d. education of staff

c. increased use of antibiotics

Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic types of investigations used to analyze the occurrence of disease?

a. analytical
b. etiology
c. experimental
d. descriptive

b. etiology

Which of the following involves collecting all data that describe the occurrence of the disease under study?

a. analytical epidemiology
b. descriptive epidemiology
c. experimental epidemiology
d. case reporting

b. descriptive epidemiology

The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is published by the

a. CDC.
b. NIH.
c. FDA.
d. WHO.

a. CDC

Which of the following is NOT a notifiable infectious disease?

a. anthrax
b. cholera
c. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
d. scarlet fever

d. scarlet fever

Who made a map showing that people infected with cholera drank from the Broad Street pump?

a. Robert Koch
b. John Snow
c. Florence Nightingale
d. Ignaz Semmelweis

b. John Snow

If a patient enters the period of illness and does not successfully overcome the disease, what occurs?

a. The patient enters the period of decline.
b. The patient enters the prodormal period.
c. The patient enters the period of convalescence.
d. The patient dies.

d. The patient dies.

The Rickettsial disease that killed Howard Ricketts and Stanislaus Prowazek was LOUSE-BORNE TYPHUS Which of the following is considered an important function of the skin? HOLD MUSCLE TO BONE, MANUFACTURE BLOOD CELLS, PRODUCE ANTIBODIES WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

Microbiology: An Introduction, 10e (Tortora et al. ) Chapter 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Test Bank 1) A commensal bacterium A) Does not receive any benefit from its host. B) Is beneficial to its host. C) May be an …

Which of the following statements concerning pathology, infection, and disease is true? Pathology refers to the study of structural and functional changes that occur in the body as a result of a disease. Which of the following is an example …

Which of the following statements concerning pathology, infection, and disease is true? The majority of microorganisms are pathogenic. Microorganisms that make up the normal microbiota of an individual never cause disease. The term infection is synonymous with the term disease. …

Which of the following statements concerning pathology, infection, and disease is true Pathology refers to the study of structural and functional changes that occur in the body as a result of a disease Which of the following is an example …

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