Microbes and Infection

Other main factors that are pointed out as the reasons for the emergence of new pathogens are the geographical expansion of the human populace and globalization of trade. Ongoing socio-environmental concerns correlated to the continual increased of pathogen movement are the geographical progression of diverse animal species, ecological disturbances and disruption, non-cultivated organisms, and the increase amounts of global terrorism. The implication is deadly: zoonoses will not just persist in the future but also, the speed by which they emerged will also increase.

Public information and conveyance as well general education should be maximized to combat the zoonotic emergence of the dangerous pathogens [12] . Patterns of pathogens transmission from the wild animals to humans may be ‘actual but rare’ and the common ‘direct or vector-mediated’ type of transmission. The first pattern is a relatively a rare event but human-to-human cross contamination may be persistent or permanent. Examples of this zoonotic pattern are HIV/AIDS, influenza A, Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome.

The second pattern illustrates the normal route for infection and it is more common the other aforementioned pattern; this include the rabies and other lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, West Nile virus, Hantavirus, and the agents of Lyme borreliosis, plague, tularemia, leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis [13]. Implications on public healthy may be classified as direct or indirect. Direct implications are those that affect morbidity and mortality whereas indirect implications pertain to the influence of zoonoses on two groups of the health populace, namely: health experts and the general public.

Since most zoonotic diseases come undetected because the symptoms are similar with other infectious and non-infectious diseases, most of the morbidity and mortality cases are underestimated; most are only detected when the disease spread has reach maximal proportions of morbidity and mortality [13]. Expert assessment of the significance of the zoonoses affect the public health in terms of societal practices and structures, recognition of subjects for investigation and resource allocation at both external and internal state levels.

State policy on the health department is invariably affected by the general public acuity on the risks associated with the zoonotic diseases [13]. New paradigms or constructs for pandemic control should be initiated at the following levels: (1) international, local, regional and global and cooperation/networks relating to food safety policies and more generally to the protection of public health, (2) intersectorial collaboration for disease containment, and (3) independence of sectorial interests and transparency when managing certain health risks [14].

Take for instance, FDA is tasked to facilitate the development of reliable diagnostic tools, and facilitate the development of safe and effective treatments for the infection [13]. Post-spillover control entails improvement in diagnosis and detection of human infections, modification of the immune condition of beings and/or domestic animals through vaccines, production of improved antiviral or antibacterial drugs, and enhancement of human-based surveillance as an early warning system [15]. There are a variety of vaccines which are used to treat the disease itself.

One cannot help wondering though that the emergence of zoonotic diseases also arose due to the evolving virulence of some strains of microorganisms. Pathogenic Salmonella and Campylobacter strains merge antimicrobial resistance due to a variety of factors and the medicines prescribed for infection, are pointed out as major culprits. Spontaneous recombination of gene-encoded factors for resistance is the most important consideration when creating a vaccine. What is scary if the immune system cannot react to the mutant zoonosis[16]. A new approach to controlling the emerging zoonotic disease is identified.

With the proliferation of technology and the commonality of web-based information systems, it is practical that power information is utilized through web technology. The relative progress in the integration of public health veterinarians and other health experts in various fields of emerging disease control which allows public translation of research data is relatively slow but the hints and suggestions of the web are endless [17]. Emerging zoonotic diseases must be thread on carefully by cooperation from the public health and the experts from multidisciplinary fields of studies.

While it is true that the interest of the public on emerging zoonotic diseases was sparked only by the 2003 SARS attack [18] and the recent Avian Bird Flu [19] , there are many more deadly pathogens that are simply waiting for a potential to attack and parasite on healthy human hosts. In point of fact, emerging zoonotic diseases do no just imply health/medical scare. Psychological factors play a role in the zoonosis since most of the time, neuropathic disorders may sometimes arise from this ‘scare.

’ The economic cost is so great that strategies, previously mentioned, must be considered, not just to eradicate the health for security measures but also for economic stability. In China and Canada 40 billion dollars was spent on SARS alone while in Britain same estimates were spent on FMD [20]. In summary, the unprecedented effects of the emerging zoonotic disease are harmful and extensive for the world society in terms of health and economy.. The paper pointed out several reasons for the emergence but what is most important is the control that is facilitated between the public health and the multi-disciplinary experts.

References Cited

[1] Field, H. , Young, P. , Yob, J. M. , Mills, J. , Hall, L. , Mackenzie, J. The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes and Infection 2001; 3: 307–314. [2] Daszak, P. , Cunningham, A. A. , Hyatt, A. D.. Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Trop. 2001; 78: 103–116. [3] H. Krauss, A. Weber, M. Appel, B. Enders, A. v. Graevenitz, H. D. Isenberg, H. G. Schiefer, W. Slenczka, H. Zahner: Zoonoses. Infectious Diseases Transmissible from Animals to Humans. 3rd Edition, 456 pages. ASM Press. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC. , USA. 2003.

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