Micro Lab Final Exam

Oxidative Fermentative (OF) Aerobic
-Obtain energy via oxidation (aka needs oxygen)
-Positive: yellow
-Negative: green
-Both positive (ana and a) means the organism does not need oxygen to live

Oxidative Fermentative (OF) Anaerobic
-Obtain energy via fermentation (aka doesn’t require oxygen)
-Positive: yellow
-Negative: green
-Add oil to prevent oxygen from getting in

PR Lactose
-Obtain energy by fermenting lactose
-Positive: yellow
-Negative: red/orange
-Durham tube: gas is a by product of fermentation

PR Sucrose
-Obtain energy by fermenting sucrose
-Positive: yellow
-Negative: red/orange
-Durham tube: gas is a by product of fermentation

MR
-Add 10 drops of methyl red
-Mixed fermentation OR complete breakdown of glucose
-Positive: red after adding methyl red
-Negative: no change after adding methyl red

VP
-Add 5 drops of barretts A and 5 drops of barretts B
-Butadoil fermentation OR partial breakdown of glucose
-Postive: red after addition of barretts A & B
-Negative: no change after addition of barretts A & B

SIM/Indole
-Add 10 drops of Kovak’s reagent (carcinogenic)
-Tryptophan fermentation
-Positive: red ring after adding Kovak’s
-Negative: no change after adding Kovak’s
-Hydrogen sulfide production = black at bottom of tube

Citrate
-Obtain energy from other carbon containing compounds, no carbohydrates (ex. citric acid)
-Positive: dark blue
-Negative: green

TSI
-Triple sugar iron (lactose, sucrose, glucose)
-Positive: yellow (on slant —-> where yellow is means what it is using)
-Negative: red/orange

Blood Type A
A antigens
Anti-B antibodies
Can receive: O, A

Blood Type B
A antigens
Anti-A antibodies
Can receive: O, B

Blood Type AB
A antigens
B antigens
NO antibodies
Can receive: O, AB, A, B
*UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT*

Blood Type O
NO antigens
Anti-A antibodies
Anti-B antibodies
Can receive: O
*UNIVERSAL DONOR*

Universal Donor
Blood Type O
Since there are no antigens on type O, anyone can be given type O without any agglutination or clumping to worry about.

Universal Recipient
Blood Type AB
Since there are no anti-A or anti-B antibodies on type AB, type AB can receive any type of blood without any agglutination or clumping to worry about.

How could you determine if a blood sample is compatible to transfuse from one individual to another in an emergency situation, if blood typing serum is not available?
A small amount of blood can be drawn from each individual and mixed together to determine if the red blood cells will agglutinate or clump together. If there is no agglutination, then the blood types are compatible and can be transfused from one individual to the other.

How is this simulated blood typing activity similar to actual human blood typing?
The blood typing procedure for simulated blood is similar to actual blood typing. Simulated blood agglutinates in a similar fashion to actual blood when mixed with the appropriate antiserum.

What would happen to a type O patient if he receives type A or B blood?
The antibodies in the plasma of a type O patient would attach to the antigens that are found on the red blood cells of the A or B blood and cause the red blood cells to clump together. Transfusion of type A or B blood type to a type O patient would produce potentially fatal complications.

What are the consequences of Rh incompatibility?
Rh-negative individuals who have been transfused with Rh-positive blood can produce Rh antibodies. They may develop a transfusion reaction, during which agglutination may occur, if they are transfused again with Rh-positive blood. Usually Rh compatibility is tested when the ABO blood type is determined.

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