Mental illness – Schizophrenia

Mental illness is any illness that has significant psychological or behavioral signs, which have painful or distressing symptoms, which occur, in more then one important area. Mental illness can be caused by psychological, social, biochemical, or genetic dysfunction or disturbance in the individual. There are many types of mental illnesses, each of which affects a certain area in a person’s psychological and behavioral ways.

Mental illnesses have become quite common, it is estimated that about 15% of the population in developed countries have some sort of mental illness. The different forms of mental illness are: Schizophrenia- someone with schizophrenia don’t have split personality, they have a brain disorder that interferes with the persons ability to think clearly, manage emotions, make decisions and relate to other. Symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, confused thinking, altered senses- trouble making sense of signs, sounds, feelings, altered or blocked emotions- expression of feelings inappropriately.

Bipolar disorder- is brain disorder resulting in episodes of mania and depression. Symptoms of mania: either happy mood or unpleasant mood, increased activity and energy, faster and increased thinking and talking, ambitious plans, poor judgment, increase in sexual interest and activity, decreased sleep. Symptoms of depression: depressed or apathetic mood, decreased activity and energy, slow and decreased thinking, less talking, participation and enjoyment of activities normally fun, decreased sexual interest and activity, hopeless or helpless feelings, decreased or increased sleep, increased or decrease appetite, pessimistic, suicidal. Autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism- Is a neurobiological disorder that effects physical, social and language skills.

Symptoms: impaired social interaction, problems with verbal and non-verbal communication and unusual or limited interests. Asperger syndrome- child with asperger syndrome experiences no clinically significant delay in cognitive or language development and no difficulty with creative thinking. Symptoms: awkwardness in social situations, intense preoccupation with certain topics, self-directed orientation, lack of understanding of social cues and clumsiness. Depression- illness involving disturbance in mood, concentration, sleep, activity, appetite and social behavior. Symptoms: feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness, sadness, emptiness and guilt.

Anxiety disorders: the following are all anxiety disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)- Obsessions are intrusive, irrational thoughts, unwanted ideas that repeatedly occur in a persons mind. Symptoms: repeated checking of things, fear of harming others, feeling dirty and contaminated, constantly arranging, excessively concerned with body imperfections, ruled by numbers, excessively concerned with sins. Phobias- exaggerated, involuntary, irrational fear of certain things.

Panic- Phobias cause panic attacks. Symptoms: sweating, hot or cold flashes, choking or smothering sensations, racing heart, labored breathing, trembling, chest pains, faintness, numbness, nausea, feelings of dying, losing control. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-occurs after traumatic event causing fear, helplessness, horror. Symptoms: continually reliving event, avoid individuals, thoughts, situations related to event. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)-experience excessive anxiety and worry about everyday events. Symptoms: edginess, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, muscle tension and sleep disturbances.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-There is 3 types of it. Predominantly inattentive- don’t to pay or sustaining attention, don’t listen when spoken to, don’t follow through on instructions, avoid, reluctant or dislike to engage in tasks requiring mental effort, easily distracted and forgetful. Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive-fidget with hands, feet and in seats, leave seats in situations where remaining seated is expected, have difficulty engaging in activities quietly, are on the go, talk excessively, have difficulty waiting. Combined- Show symptoms of both. Dissociative disorder-people have 2 or more personalities.

Symptoms: different identities have different speech, mannerisms, attitudes, thoughts and gender orientation. Mental illness and substance abuse- refers to the co-occurrence of mental health disorders and substance abuse (drugs, alcohol). Symptoms: increase use of substance to an unreasonable level. Addiction to substance. Tourette syndrome- a neurological disorder causes involuntary movements and uncontrollable sounds called tics. Symptoms: multiple motor and vocal tics.

Bibliography

Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe 2000 www.NAMI.org 

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