Memorizing Pharmacology – A Relaxed Approach

calcium carbonate (Tums, Children’s Pepto)
antacid

magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia)
antacid; laxative effect

famotidine (Pepcid)
histamine-2 receptor antagonist;

ranitidine (Zantac)
histamine 2 receptor antagonist

ulcer triple therapy
PPI, antibiotics

esomeprazole (Nexium)
PPI

omeprazole (Prilosec)
PPI

bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
antidiarrheal; black tongue and black stool

loperamide (Imodium)
antidiarrheal; used by runners

docusate sodium (Colace)
stool softener for constipation; used with opiates like morphine (Kadian); helps water penetrate the bowel

polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 MiraLax
osmotic drug for constipation; colonoscopy exam preparation

ondansetron (Zofran, Zofran ODT)
antiemetic; serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist; ODT means orally disintegrating tablet

promethazine (Phenergan)
antiemetic phenothiazine; antihistamine sometimes used in liquid form with codeine that also reduces nausea; oral, IM, IV, rectal suppository

infliximab (Remicade)
ulcerative colitis agent; blocks tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)

aspirin [ASA] (Ecotrin)
OTC analgesic NSAID; blocks cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 to minimize inflammatory processes

ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
OTC analgesic NSAID

naproxen (Aleve)
OTC analgesic NSAID

acetaminophen [APA] (Tylenol)
non-NSAID OTC analgesic; non-narcotic

Exedrin migraine
aspirin/acetaminophen/caffeine; ASA/APAP/caffieine; inflammation/analgesia/vasoconstriction; OTC migraine NSAID/non-narcotic alagesic

meloxicam (Mobic)
RX NSAID analgesic

Celecoxib (Celebrex)
RX analgesic NSAID Cox-2 inhibitor; lack of COX-1 irritation causing less GI irritation than non-selective NSAIDS

schedule 1 drugs
illegal substances with no medical value; includes heroin

schedule 2 drugs
potentially addicting; includes fentanyl (Duragesic, Sublimaze), morphine (Kadian), hydrocodone/APAP (Vicodin); oxycodone/APAP (Percocet)

schedule 3 drugs
less addicting; acetominophen/codeine (Tylenol with codeine)

schedule 4 drugs
sedative-hypnotics such as zolpidem (Ambien) and mixed opioid analgesics like tramadol (Ultram)

schedule 5 drugs
often cough medicines like guaifenesin/codeine (Cheratussin AC) that include codeine but not alone

miosis
pinpoint pupils; associated with opioid use

morphine (Kadian, MS Contin)
opioid analgesic; schedule II; Kadian is extended-release morphine; MS Contin is continuous release

fentanyl (Duragesic, Sublimaze)
opioid analgesic; schedule II; dosed in micrograms; long duration analgesic; patches for 72 hours; Sublimaze is injectable fentanyl

hydrocodone/APAP (Vicodin)
opioid analgesic; schedule II

oxycodone/acetaminophen (Percocet)
opioid analgesic; schedule II

acetaminophen/codeine (Tylenol/Codeine, Tylenol #3)
opioid analgesic; schedule III; “acetaminophen with codeine (Tylenol with codeine)”

tramadol (Ultram)
mixed opioid receptor analgesic; schedule 4; weakly affects opioid receptor

naloxone (Narcan)
opioid antagonist; used in opioid OD situations;

L-E-A-N of emergency medicine
lidocaine, epinephrine, atropine, naloxone

5-HT1 receptor agonists
relieve headache

eletriptan (Relpax)
5-HT1 receptor agonist; headache/migraine relief

sumatriptan (Imitrex)
5-HT1 receptor agonist; headache/migraine relief

DMARD stands for
disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; works against rheumatoid arthritis

methotrexate (Rheumatrex)
DMARD; anti-rheumatic drug; Metho o T-Rex ate the rheumatic inflammate

abatacept (Orencia)
DMARD; anti-rheumatic drug

etanercept (Enbrel)
DMARD; anti-rheumatic drug

alendronate (Foxamax)
bisphosphonates; given weekly; do not lie down for 30 minutes after taking; osteoporosis drug; calcium metabolism regulator

ibandronate (Boniva)
bisphosphonate; osteoporosis drug; given monthly; do not lie down for 60 minutes after taking

cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)
muscle relaxant; relief from muscle spasms

diazepam (Valium)
muscle relaxant; anxiolytic; relief from muscle spasms

how to treat gout
immediately with NSAID like ibuprofen and prophylactically by reducing uric acid with drugs like allopurinol (Zyloprim) and febuxostat (Uloric)

allopurinol (Zyloprim)
uric acid reducer for gout

febuxostat (Uloric)
uric acid reducer for gout

antihistamine types
first generation antihistamines like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) make a pt sleepy but improve allergy symptoms; second generation antihistamines cannot pass through BBB limiting drowsiness

diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
OTC first-generation antihistamine; crosses BBB and causes drowsiness; also used as sleep aid

cetirizine (Zyrtec)
OTC second-generation antihistamine; does not cross BBB

loratidine (Claritin)
OTC second-generation antihistamine; does not cross BBB

loratadine/pseudoephedrine (Claritin-D)
OTC antihistamine second generation/decongestant

pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
OTC decongestant; behind pharmacy or service counter

phenylephrine (NeoSynephrine)
OTC decongestant; not as effective as pseudoephedrine and available OTC

oxymetazoline (Afrin)
intranasal OTC decongestant

nasal steroids vs topical decongestants
weeks of use until pt has relief; topical decongestants work right away

Robitussin DM
guaifenesin acts as mucolytic to lyse mucus and chest congestion; dextromethorphan is DM and acts as antitussive or cough suppressant

triamcinolone (Nasacort Allergy 24HR)
OTC allergic rhinitis steroid nasal spray

guaifenesin/dextromethorphan (Mucinex DM/Robitussin DM)
guaifenesin is mucolytic and antitussives are anti-cough (DM)

guaifenesin/codeine (Cheratussin AC)
Rx antitussive/mucolytic; DM is antitussive but sometimes not effective enough, so codeine helps suppress cough

methylprednisolone (Medrol)
oral steroid for asthma reducing lung inflammation after a severe attack

prednisone (Deltasone)
oral steroid; useful for reducing inflammation after a severe asthma attack

budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort)
inhaled steroid/beta-2 receptor agonist long-acting; bronchodilator; treat inflammation and bronchoconstriction in asthma; prophylactic

salmeterol/fluticasone (Advair)
inhaled steroid/beta 2 receptor agonist long-acting; combination for asthma to treat inflammation and bronchoconstriction

fluticasone (Flovent HFA, Flovent Diskus, Flonase)
inhaled steroid; asthma; diskus inhaler uses a dry powder for inhalation rather than a propellant and liquid; Flonase is brand name for fluticasone administered nasally available OTC

albuterol/ipratropium (DuoNeb)
beta 2 receptor agonist/anticholinergic short-acting; bronchodilator for asthma; anticholinergic effects include dry mouth/constipation

ipratropium
short-acting anticholinergic

tiotropium (Spiriva)
asthma/COPD; anticholinergic long-acting; asthma

montelukast (Singulair)
asthma; leukotrine receptor antagonist; leukotrienes cause bronchoconstriction to protect lungs from foreign contaminants; Singulair once daily

omalizumab (Xolair)
asthma anti-IgE antibody; biologic; BBW for posibility of anaphylaxis after first dose and even a year after onset of tx; inject where a medication for treating anaphylaxis is available

epinephrine (EpiPen)
anti-anaphylactic; opens airways and reverses anaphylaxis quickly

three classes of antimicrobials
antibiotics (bacteria), antifungals (mycoses or fungi), antiviral (viruses)

neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin (Neosporin)
antibiotic cream; neomycin is aminoglycoside, nephrotoxic and ototoxic systemically but safe topically

aminoglycoside side effects
nephrotoxic, ototoxic

butenafine (Lotrimin Ultra)
antifungal cream; ring worm, jock itch, Athlete’s foot

tinea coporis
ringworm

tinea cruris
jock itch

tinea pedis
athlete’s foot

influenza vaccine (Fluzone, Flumist)
antiviral (prophylaxis); Flumist is nasal vaccine

docosanol (Abreva)
antiviral (acute); topical for cold sores caught and treated early

penicillin mechanism of action
open a bacterium’s cell wall; bactericidal

amoxicillin (Amoxil)
penicillin antibiotic; destroys the cell wall

amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin)
penicillin antibiotic/beta-lactamase inhibitor; clavulanate added to amoxicillin to protect amoxicillin from beta-lactamase, an enzyme produced by bacteria

cephalexin (Keflex)
first-generation cephalosporin

cephalosporin generations
first generation do not cross CSF, have poor gram-negative bacterial coverage, subject to deactivation by beta-lactamases; third- and fourth-generation have good penetration into CSF, good gram-negative coverage, cover bacteria resistant to beta-lactamses

cephalosporin cross-sensitivity with penicillin
rare but does occur

ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
third-generation cephalosporin

cefepime (Maxipime)
fourth-generation cephalosporin

vancomycin (Vancocin)
glycopeptide antibiotic affecting cell walls; sometimes the last line of defense against MRSA; protocol of rx to prevent resistance; rare hypersensitivity called red man syndrome; special dosing requirements; “vanc”

doxycycline (Doryx)
tetracycline antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; causes photosensitivity and chelation

chelation
binding with cations like calcium in milk or antacids

minocycline (Minocin)
tetracycline antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; causes photosensitivity and chelation

azithromycin (Zithromax Z-Pak)
macrolide antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; Zithromax Z-Pak is a six-tablet package with five-day course, two tablets for a loading dose day and once daily thereafter

clarithromycin (Biaxin)
macrolide antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; PUD triple therapy along with amoxicillin and PPI; Biaxin brand indicates b.i.d.

erythromycin (E-Mycin)
macrolide antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; four times daily

clindamycin (Cleocin)
lincosamide antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; adverse effect C. diff associated disease (CDAD); dental prophylaxis in penicillin-allergic pt; topical for severe acne; PO can cause pseudomembranous colitis/antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD)

linezolid (Zyvox)
oxazolidinone antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; MRSA and VRE; “linezolid is zolid”

amikacin (Amikin)
aminoglycoside antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bactericidal; nephrotoxic and ototoxic

gentamicin (Garamycin)
aminoglyside antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bactericidal; nephrotoxic and ototoxic; “gent”

sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ-TMP)
dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor; antibiotics for UTI and PUD; combination therapy that affects folic acid in bacteria; Steven-Johnson syndrome; sulfa drugs for UTI and prophylaxis of certain infectionst hat commonly occur in immunocompormised pts

cross-sensitivity between allergies to sulfa antibiotics and other sulfonamide-containing drugs like furosemide
literature does not support it

ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
fluoroquinolone antibiotic; UTI and PUD; photosensitivity and chelation; rarely tendon rupture

levofloxacin (Levaquin)
fluoroquinolone antibiotic; UTI and PUD; left-handed isomer of ofloxacin; photosensitivity and chelation; rarely tendon rupture

metronidazole (Flagyl)
nitroimidazole antibiotic; UTI and PUD; treats various infections including H. pylori as part of triple therapy; disulfiram reaction where pt may experience serious n/v; adverse effect with alcohol involving projectile vomiting

four major anti-TB drugs
rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinimide, ethambutol (r-i-p-e); non-drug resistant, non-HIV pts take all four drugs for two months and then isoniazid and rifampin together for two more months

rifampin (Rifadin)
anti-TB agent; taken for six months; turns secretions like tears, sweat, and urine red

isoniazid (INH)
anti-TB agent; taken for six months; possible adverse effect neuritis

pyrazinamide (PZA)
anti-TB drug; taken for two months; possible adverse effect polyarthritis

ethambutol (Myambutol)
anti-TB drug; taken for two months; adverse effect of optic neuritis

two general types of antifungals
systemic (in the body) and dermatologic or topical (on the skin)

amphotericin B (Fungizone)
antifungal; systemic infections

fluconazole (Diflucan)
antifungal; vaginal yeast infections

nystatin (Mycostatin)
antifungal; thrust or yeast infections; not a cholesterol-lowering statin

oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
non-HIV antiviral; influenza A and B; work when taken within 48 hours of the infection

zanimivir (Relenza)
non-HIV antiviral; influenza A and B; works within 48 hours of the infection. comes in a Diskhaler that gets powder into the lungs but is difficult for pts with dexterity issues

acyclovir (Zovirax)
non-HIV antiviral; HSV and varicella-zoster virus (HSV and VSV); prevents recurrences and treats infection; does not cure; 5x daily

valacyclovir (Valtrex)
non-HIV antiviral; HSV and varicella-zoster virus (HSV and VSV); prevents recurrences and treats infection; does not cure; turns into an active drug in the body (acyclovir); b.i.d.

palivizumab (Synagis)
non-HIV antiviral; respiratory syncytial virus; vaccine

respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
usually unproblematic in healthy adults but potentially deadly in infants younger than one year old

enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) T-20
HIV antiviral; fusion inhibitor; prevents HIV virus from fusing with cell

maraviroc (Selzentry) (MVC)
HIV antiviral; cellular chemokine receptor (CCR5) antagonist; HIV uses CCR5 to enter the cell

efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir (Atripla) (EFV/FTC/TDF)
HIV antiviral; non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) with 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs); HIV uses transcriptase inside of the cell

raltegravir (Isentress) (RAL)
HIV antiviral; integrase strand transfer inhibitor; HIV uses integrase inside of the cell

darunavir (Prezista) (DRV)
HIV antiviral; protease inhibitor

benzocaine (Anbesol)
OTC local anesthetic ester type

two major classes of local anesthetics
esters and amides

esters are usually given as
topical agents b/c they are more allergenic when injected

amides are usually given as
well tolerated/less allergenic when injected compared to esters

lidocaine (Solarcaine)
OTC local anesthetic amide type; often used topically and OTC for sunburns; injectable and patch forms by rx; paramedic use for arrhythmias as injectable (L-E-A-N)

meclizine (Dramamine, AntiVert)
OTC antivertigo medication, antiemetic/motion sickness; dizziness tx

acetaminophen/diphenhydramine (Tylenol PM)
OTCH non-narcotic analgesic/sedative-hypnotic; aches and sedating first-generation antihistamine

eszopiclone (Lunesta)
benzodiazepine-like sedative-hypnootic; sleeping pill

Zolpidem (Ambien, Ambien CR)
benzodiazepine-like sedative-hypnotic; sleeping pill; CR for people who have difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) and those with difficulty falling asleep (DFA); non-CR works for DFA

ramelteon (Rozerem)
melatonin receptor agonist; sedative-hypnotic

citalopram (Celexa)
antidepressant; SSRI; selectively inhibit reuptake (breakdown) of serotonin within neurons; improves mood

escitalopram (Lexapro)
antidepressant; SSRI; selectively inhibits reuptake of serotonin within neurons; improves mood

sertraline (Zoloft)
antidepressant; SSRI; selectively inhibits reuptake of serotonin within neurons; improves mood

fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem)
SSRI AD; first SSRI to make it to market; also indicated for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMD) as Sarafem

paroxetine (Paxil, Paxil CR)
SSRI AD; CR with fewer initial side effects and easier to dose

SSRIs
ADs that selectively inhibit the reuptake of serotonin within the neurons and improve mood

duloxetine (Cymbalta)
SNRI AD; affect serotonin and norepi

venlafaxine (Effexor)
SNRI AD; affect serotonin and norepi

amitriptyline (Elavil)
TCAD; three-ring chemical structure

isocarboxazid (Marplan)
MAOI AD; blocks the enzyme monoamine oxidase that breaks down NTS to elevate monoamine NTS; elevates pt mood

bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban)
smoking cessation; first marketed as Wellbutrin, atypical AD; risk in pts with history of seizures

varenicline (Chantix)
smoking cessation; causes distressing dreams, suicidal thoughts, adverse affects

alprazolam (Xanax)
benzodiazepine; relief from anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms

two endings to benzodiazepines
-azolam, -azepam

why did benzos replace barbiturates as a sleep aid?
barbiturates cause respiratory depression

midazolam (Versed)
benzodiazepine; relieves anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms

clonazepam (Klonopin)
benzodiazepine; relieves anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms

lorazepam (Ativan)
benzodiazepine; relieves anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms

atomoxetine (Strattera)
ADHD; non-stimulant; non-scheduled; no potential for abuse

dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
ADHD; schedule II stimulant; helps focus

methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta)
ADHD, schedule II stimulant; helps focus; long-acting med taken once daily

lithium (Lithobid)
bipolar disorder; simple salt; mood stabilizer; may cause electrolyte imbalances (cation); what happens to sodium happens to lithium; toxic or subtherapeutic if too much is retained or excreted

risperidone
bipolar disorder medication; controls certain symptoms until lithium level is correct

schizophrenia drug classifications
typical (first-generation) or atypical (second-generation)

high potency first-generation/typical schizophrenia drugs
more EPS, less sedation

classifications of typical/first-generation schizophrenia medication
high potency and low potency

low potency first-generation/typical schizophrenic drugs
more sedation, fewer EPS

extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)
movement disorders associated with antipsychotics

for what are typical antipsychotics prescribed?
schizophrenia with positive symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia

atypical/second-generation antipsychotics
fewer EPS; more negative metabolic effects like weight gain, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia; work for positive symptoms and negative symptoms (poor motivation, emotional and social withdrawal)

chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
first-generation/typical antipsychotic (FGA) low potency; schizophrenia medication; more sedation; fewer EPS; positive symptoms

haloperidol (Haldol)
first-generation/typical antipsychotic (FGA) high potency; more EPS; less sedation; positive symptoms

risperidone (Risperdal)
second-generation/atypical antipsychotic (SGA); schizophrenia; used with lithium before correct lithium dose is found; fewer ESP; more negative metabolic effects like DM, hyperlipidemia, weight gain; positive and negative symptoms

quetiapine (Seroquel)
second-generation/atypical antipsychotic (SGA); schizophrenia; fewer EPS; more negative metabolic effects like DM, hyperlipidemia, weight gain; positive and negative sx

carbamazepine (Tegretol)
traditional antiepileptic

divalproex (Depakote)
traditional antiepileptic

phenytoin (Dilantin)
traditional antiepileptic

gabapentin (Neurontin)
newer antiepileptic; off-label for neurologic pain; does not directly affect GABA

pregabalin (Lyrica)
newer antiepileptic

levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet)
Parkinson’s drug; restores NTS dopamine responsible for proper motor fxn depleted by Parkinson’s; levodopa is antiparkinsonian and carbidopa reduces degredation of levodopa; working synergistically

selegiline (Eldepryl)
Parkinson’s drug

donepezil (Aricept)
Alzheimer’s drug; restores NTS Ach by reducing breakdown by acetylcholinesterase; improves recollection

memantine (Namenda)
Alzheimer’s drug; antagonizes receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate

scopolamine (Transderm-Scop)
motion sickness drug; Transderm-Scop is transdermal scopolamine; often used on cruise ships

omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Lovaza)
OTC or rx antihyperlipidemic; fish oil; reduces the impact of cholesterol

niacin (Niaspan ER)
OTC antihyperlipidemic; reduces cholesterol in the body; facial flushing prevented by ASA 30 mins before tx

aspirin (Ecotrin)
OTC antiplatelet; 81 mg daily is to prevent platelet sticking, CVA, and MI; daily 81 mg is not for analgesia or fever reduction

order of diuretics
osmotic diuretics work at PCT; loop diuretics work at Loop of Henle; thiazide diuretics work at DCT; potassium sparing diuretics work at collecting duct

osmotic diuretics work at
PCT

loop diuretics work at
Loop of Henle

thiazide diuretics work at
DCT

potassium sparing diuretics work at
collecting duct

order of most to least diuresis by diuretic class
osmotic > loop > thiazide > potassium sparing

mannitol (Osmitrol)
osmotic diuretic; reduces intracranial pressure (ICP) in an emergency; works at PCT

furosemide (Lasix)
loop diuretic; works at Loop of Henle; Lasix lasts 6 hours

hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide)
thiazide diuretic; works at DCT; initial tx of HTN

triamteren/hydrochlorothiazide (Dyazide)
potassium sparing and thiazide diuretics; combination to keep potassium in balance; modest diuresis; triamterene is potassium sparing diuretic

spironolactone (Aldactone)
potassium sparing diuretic; works at CD; can cause gynecomastia; blocks aldosterone

potassium chloride (K-Dur)
electrolyte replenishment; used when loop diuretic lowers pt potassium level; long duration; used when potassium is “dur”

doxazosin (Cardura)
alpha-1 antagonist; vasodilation; reduces BP; benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

beta-blockers can treat
angina pectoris, CHF, stage fright, migraine, HTN

beta-1 receptors are concentrated in the
heart

beta-2 receptors are concentrated in the
lungs

clonidine (Catapres)
alpha-2 agonist; reduces peripheral vascular resistance; works in brain; single therapy or with methylphenidate (Concerta) for ADHD

propanolol (Inderal)
first-generation non-selective beta blocker; affects b-1 in heart to lower HR; affects b-2 in lungs and causes bronchoconstriction; side effect is bronchoconstriction

atenolol (Tenormin)
second-generation selective beta blocker; b-1 selective

metoprolol tartate (Lopressor)
second-generation selective beta blocker; b-1 selective; reduces BP; body compensates with vasoconstricted arterioles; shorter duration of action than metoprolol succinate

metoprolol succinate (Toprol XL)
second-generation selective beta blocker; b-1 selective; reduces BP; body compensates for reduced BP with arteriolar vasoconstriction; long-acting metoprolol, longer than metropolol tartate

carvedilol (Coreg)
non-beta selective third generation beta blocker; vasodilating

enalapril (Vasotec)
ACE inhibitor; stop the body from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II

lisinopril (Zestril)
ACE inhibitor; stops body from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II

losartan (Cozaar)
angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB); blocks/inhibits connection between angiotensin II and receptor that causes vasoconstriction; alternate to ACE-I b/c ACE-I causes cough

olmesartan (Benicar)
ARB; blocks/inhibits connection between angiotensin II and receptor that causes vasoconstriction; alternate to ACE-I b/c ACE-I causes cough

valsartan (Diovan)
ARB; blocks/inhibits connection angiotensin II and receptor that causes vasoconstriction; alternate to ACE-I b/c ACE-I causes cough

calcium channel blocker (CCB) classes
both vasodilate; non-dihydropyridines affect heart directly and are antidysrhythmics; dihydropyridines only vasodilate

CCB uses
prevent uterine contractions; vasodilate

diltiazem (Cardizem)
non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker; vasodilates, affects heart directly, antidysrhythmic

verapamil (Calan)
non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker; vasodilates, affects heart directly, antidysrhythmic; causes constipation

amlodipine (Norvasc)
dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker; only vasodilates

nifedipine (Procardia)
dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker; only vasodilates; best CCB to prevent uterine conctraction b/c it does not suppress mother and fetal heart as non-dihydropyridines do

nitroglycerin (Nitrostat)
vasodilator

atorvastatin (Lipitor)
antihyperlipidemic; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor

rosuvastatin (Crestor)
antihyperlipidemic; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor

fenofibrate (Tricor)
antihyperlipidemic; fibric acid derivative

enoxaparin (Lovenox)
anticoagulant; injectable; affects coagulation in slower moving blood vessels like veins; affects clotting factors to prevent thrombosis; more expensive per dose than heparin but can be taken home; bridge therapy in pt starting warfarin therapy

heparin
anticoagulant; injectable; affects clotting factors to prevent thrombosis

warfarin (Coumadin)
oral anticoagulant; measure effectiveness with INR; antidote is vitamin K

INR
international normalized ratio; determines warfarin effectiveness

dabigatran (Pradaxa)
anticoagulant; affects clotting factors to reduce thrombosis; does not require INR monitoring

clopidogrel (Plavix)
antiplatelet; reduced likelihood of platelets sticking together and clotting; similar moa to ASA for clotting; decrease how sticky platelets are in high-pressure vessels such as arteries to prevent clot and MI/CVA

ASA clotting
reduces stickiness of hgih-pressure vessels such as arteries to prevent clot and ensuing MI/CVA

digoxin (Lanoxin)
cardiac glycoside; antidysrhythmic; increases heart’s force of contraction; positive inotropic affect; changes electrochemistry of the heart

atropine (AtroPen)
anticholinergic; prevents bradycardia; ABDUCT (anhidrosis, blurry vision secondary to dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation, tachycardia); treats cholinergic poisonings

anticholinergic effects
anhidrosis, blurry vision (secondary to dry eyes), dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation, tachycardia

cholinergic effects
wet effects: sweating, lacrimination, hypersalivation, urinary incontinence, diarrhea, bradycardia

regular insulin (Humulin R)
short-acting; OTC for self-pay pts; not shortest-acting (that is Humalog); used when need to adjust dosages on sliding scale; refrigerate

NPH insulin (Humulin N)
intermediate duration of action; OTC for self-pay pts; refrigerate

Humalog
shortest-acting insulin; refrigerate

levonorgestrel (Plan B One-Step)
emergency contraception; within 72 after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy; OTC; progestin hormone

four major classes of insulin used in tx
rapid-acting works in 15 minutes and lasts 4 hours [insulin lispro (Humalog)]; short-acting works in 30 minutes and lasts 6-8 hours [regular insulin (Humulin R)]; intermediate duration works in 1 hour and lasts 14-24 hours [NPH insulin (Humulin N)]; long duration works in an hour and lasts 24 hours [insulin glargine (Lantus, Toujeo)]

metformin (Glucophage)
oral anti-diabetic biguanide

sitagliptin (Januvia)
oral anti-diabetic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor

glipizide (Glucotrol)
oral anti-diabetic sulfonylureas 2nd-generation

glyburide (DiaBeta)
oral anti-diabetic sulfonylureas 2nd-generation

glucagon
hypoglycemia drug

levothyroxine (Synthroid)
hypothyroidism medication; extra thyroid hormone as replacement; supplementation

propylthiouracil (PTU)
drug for hyperthyroidism; reduces effects of TH

testosterone (AndroGel)
testosterone

norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol/ferrous fumarate (Loestrin 24 Fe)
combined oral contraceptive; reduces length of menstruation, with iron supplementation, to prevent an anemic situation

norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol (Tri-Sprintec)
combined oral contraceptive; tri-phasic birth control with three different doses of estrogen and progestin taken variously throughout the month to mimic the body’s naturally changing hormonel evels

norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol (OrthoEvra)
contraceptive transdermal patch; “OrthoEva is a patch, put it on your arm, your abs, your buttock or back, and then take it off a week after that”

etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol (NuvaRing)
vaginally inserted contraceptive ring

overactive bladder (OAB) (incontinence)
inability to retain urine due to overactive bladder

urinary retention
difficulty in urination

erectile dysfunction (ED) (impotence)
inability to achieve or maintain an erection

benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
benign (not harmful) prostrate growth or increase in size; sometimes difficulty with urine control

oxybutynin (Ditropan, Oxytrol OTC)
medication for overactive bladder (incontinence)

solifenacin (VESIcare)
medication for overacting bladder (incontinence); once daily

tolterodine (Detrol)
medication for overactive bladder (incontinence)

bethanechol (Urecholine)
medication for urinary retention; cholinergic; assists bladder muscles in expelling urine

sildenafil (Viagra)
erectile dysfunction; PDE-5 inhibitor; do not use with nitrates like nitroglycerin; aids in erection

tadalafil (Cialis)
erectile dysfunction; PDE-5 inhibitor; “weekend pill” that lasts the weekend; long half-life; aids in erection

tamsulosin (FloMax)
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH); alpha blocker; allows for maximum urinary flow

alfuzosin (Uroxatral)
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH); alpha blocker

dutasteride (Avodart)
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH); 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors

finasteride (Proscar, Propecia)
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH); 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor; Propecia helps hair growth

alopecia
hair loss

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