Memorizing Pharmacology – A Relaxed Approach

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calcium carbonate (Tums, Children’s Pepto)
antacid
magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia)
antacid; laxative effect
famotidine (Pepcid)
histamine-2 receptor antagonist;
ranitidine (Zantac)
histamine 2 receptor antagonist
ulcer triple therapy
PPI, antibiotics
esomeprazole (Nexium)
PPI
omeprazole (Prilosec)
PPI
bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
antidiarrheal; black tongue and black stool
loperamide (Imodium)
antidiarrheal; used by runners
docusate sodium (Colace)
stool softener for constipation; used with opiates like morphine (Kadian); helps water penetrate the bowel
polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 MiraLax
osmotic drug for constipation; colonoscopy exam preparation
ondansetron (Zofran, Zofran ODT)
antiemetic; serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist; ODT means orally disintegrating tablet
promethazine (Phenergan)
antiemetic phenothiazine; antihistamine sometimes used in liquid form with codeine that also reduces nausea; oral, IM, IV, rectal suppository
infliximab (Remicade)
ulcerative colitis agent; blocks tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)
aspirin [ASA] (Ecotrin)
OTC analgesic NSAID; blocks cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 to minimize inflammatory processes
ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
OTC analgesic NSAID
naproxen (Aleve)
OTC analgesic NSAID
acetaminophen [APA] (Tylenol)
non-NSAID OTC analgesic; non-narcotic
Exedrin migraine
aspirin/acetaminophen/caffeine; ASA/APAP/caffieine; inflammation/analgesia/vasoconstriction; OTC migraine NSAID/non-narcotic alagesic
meloxicam (Mobic)
RX NSAID analgesic
Celecoxib (Celebrex)
RX analgesic NSAID Cox-2 inhibitor; lack of COX-1 irritation causing less GI irritation than non-selective NSAIDS
schedule 1 drugs
illegal substances with no medical value; includes heroin
schedule 2 drugs
potentially addicting; includes fentanyl (Duragesic, Sublimaze), morphine (Kadian), hydrocodone/APAP (Vicodin); oxycodone/APAP (Percocet)
schedule 3 drugs
less addicting; acetominophen/codeine (Tylenol with codeine)
schedule 4 drugs
sedative-hypnotics such as zolpidem (Ambien) and mixed opioid analgesics like tramadol (Ultram)
schedule 5 drugs
often cough medicines like guaifenesin/codeine (Cheratussin AC) that include codeine but not alone
miosis
pinpoint pupils; associated with opioid use
morphine (Kadian, MS Contin)
opioid analgesic; schedule II; Kadian is extended-release morphine; MS Contin is continuous release
fentanyl (Duragesic, Sublimaze)
opioid analgesic; schedule II; dosed in micrograms; long duration analgesic; patches for 72 hours; Sublimaze is injectable fentanyl
hydrocodone/APAP (Vicodin)
opioid analgesic; schedule II
oxycodone/acetaminophen (Percocet)
opioid analgesic; schedule II
acetaminophen/codeine (Tylenol/Codeine, Tylenol #3)
opioid analgesic; schedule III; “acetaminophen with codeine (Tylenol with codeine)”
tramadol (Ultram)
mixed opioid receptor analgesic; schedule 4; weakly affects opioid receptor
naloxone (Narcan)
opioid antagonist; used in opioid OD situations;
L-E-A-N of emergency medicine
lidocaine, epinephrine, atropine, naloxone
5-HT1 receptor agonists
relieve headache
eletriptan (Relpax)
5-HT1 receptor agonist; headache/migraine relief
sumatriptan (Imitrex)
5-HT1 receptor agonist; headache/migraine relief
DMARD stands for
disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; works against rheumatoid arthritis
methotrexate (Rheumatrex)
DMARD; anti-rheumatic drug; Metho o T-Rex ate the rheumatic inflammate
abatacept (Orencia)
DMARD; anti-rheumatic drug
etanercept (Enbrel)
DMARD; anti-rheumatic drug
alendronate (Foxamax)
bisphosphonates; given weekly; do not lie down for 30 minutes after taking; osteoporosis drug; calcium metabolism regulator
ibandronate (Boniva)
bisphosphonate; osteoporosis drug; given monthly; do not lie down for 60 minutes after taking
cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)
muscle relaxant; relief from muscle spasms
diazepam (Valium)
muscle relaxant; anxiolytic; relief from muscle spasms
how to treat gout
immediately with NSAID like ibuprofen and prophylactically by reducing uric acid with drugs like allopurinol (Zyloprim) and febuxostat (Uloric)
allopurinol (Zyloprim)
uric acid reducer for gout
febuxostat (Uloric)
uric acid reducer for gout
antihistamine types
first generation antihistamines like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) make a pt sleepy but improve allergy symptoms; second generation antihistamines cannot pass through BBB limiting drowsiness
diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
OTC first-generation antihistamine; crosses BBB and causes drowsiness; also used as sleep aid
cetirizine (Zyrtec)
OTC second-generation antihistamine; does not cross BBB
loratidine (Claritin)
OTC second-generation antihistamine; does not cross BBB
loratadine/pseudoephedrine (Claritin-D)
OTC antihistamine second generation/decongestant
pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
OTC decongestant; behind pharmacy or service counter
phenylephrine (NeoSynephrine)
OTC decongestant; not as effective as pseudoephedrine and available OTC
oxymetazoline (Afrin)
intranasal OTC decongestant
nasal steroids vs topical decongestants
weeks of use until pt has relief; topical decongestants work right away
Robitussin DM
guaifenesin acts as mucolytic to lyse mucus and chest congestion; dextromethorphan is DM and acts as antitussive or cough suppressant
triamcinolone (Nasacort Allergy 24HR)
OTC allergic rhinitis steroid nasal spray
guaifenesin/dextromethorphan (Mucinex DM/Robitussin DM)
guaifenesin is mucolytic and antitussives are anti-cough (DM)
guaifenesin/codeine (Cheratussin AC)
Rx antitussive/mucolytic; DM is antitussive but sometimes not effective enough, so codeine helps suppress cough
methylprednisolone (Medrol)
oral steroid for asthma reducing lung inflammation after a severe attack
prednisone (Deltasone)
oral steroid; useful for reducing inflammation after a severe asthma attack
budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort)
inhaled steroid/beta-2 receptor agonist long-acting; bronchodilator; treat inflammation and bronchoconstriction in asthma; prophylactic
salmeterol/fluticasone (Advair)
inhaled steroid/beta 2 receptor agonist long-acting; combination for asthma to treat inflammation and bronchoconstriction
fluticasone (Flovent HFA, Flovent Diskus, Flonase)
inhaled steroid; asthma; diskus inhaler uses a dry powder for inhalation rather than a propellant and liquid; Flonase is brand name for fluticasone administered nasally available OTC
albuterol/ipratropium (DuoNeb)
beta 2 receptor agonist/anticholinergic short-acting; bronchodilator for asthma; anticholinergic effects include dry mouth/constipation
ipratropium
short-acting anticholinergic
tiotropium (Spiriva)
asthma/COPD; anticholinergic long-acting; asthma
montelukast (Singulair)
asthma; leukotrine receptor antagonist; leukotrienes cause bronchoconstriction to protect lungs from foreign contaminants; Singulair once daily
omalizumab (Xolair)
asthma anti-IgE antibody; biologic; BBW for posibility of anaphylaxis after first dose and even a year after onset of tx; inject where a medication for treating anaphylaxis is available
epinephrine (EpiPen)
anti-anaphylactic; opens airways and reverses anaphylaxis quickly
three classes of antimicrobials
antibiotics (bacteria), antifungals (mycoses or fungi), antiviral (viruses)
neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin (Neosporin)
antibiotic cream; neomycin is aminoglycoside, nephrotoxic and ototoxic systemically but safe topically
aminoglycoside side effects
nephrotoxic, ototoxic
butenafine (Lotrimin Ultra)
antifungal cream; ring worm, jock itch, Athlete’s foot
tinea coporis
ringworm
tinea cruris
jock itch
tinea pedis
athlete’s foot
influenza vaccine (Fluzone, Flumist)
antiviral (prophylaxis); Flumist is nasal vaccine
docosanol (Abreva)
antiviral (acute); topical for cold sores caught and treated early
penicillin mechanism of action
open a bacterium’s cell wall; bactericidal
amoxicillin (Amoxil)
penicillin antibiotic; destroys the cell wall
amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin)
penicillin antibiotic/beta-lactamase inhibitor; clavulanate added to amoxicillin to protect amoxicillin from beta-lactamase, an enzyme produced by bacteria
cephalexin (Keflex)
first-generation cephalosporin
cephalosporin generations
first generation do not cross CSF, have poor gram-negative bacterial coverage, subject to deactivation by beta-lactamases; third- and fourth-generation have good penetration into CSF, good gram-negative coverage, cover bacteria resistant to beta-lactamses
cephalosporin cross-sensitivity with penicillin
rare but does occur
ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
third-generation cephalosporin
cefepime (Maxipime)
fourth-generation cephalosporin
vancomycin (Vancocin)
glycopeptide antibiotic affecting cell walls; sometimes the last line of defense against MRSA; protocol of rx to prevent resistance; rare hypersensitivity called red man syndrome; special dosing requirements; “vanc”
doxycycline (Doryx)
tetracycline antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; causes photosensitivity and chelation
chelation
binding with cations like calcium in milk or antacids
minocycline (Minocin)
tetracycline antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; causes photosensitivity and chelation
azithromycin (Zithromax Z-Pak)
macrolide antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; Zithromax Z-Pak is a six-tablet package with five-day course, two tablets for a loading dose day and once daily thereafter
clarithromycin (Biaxin)
macrolide antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; PUD triple therapy along with amoxicillin and PPI; Biaxin brand indicates b.i.d.
erythromycin (E-Mycin)
macrolide antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; four times daily
clindamycin (Cleocin)
lincosamide antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; adverse effect C. diff associated disease (CDAD); dental prophylaxis in penicillin-allergic pt; topical for severe acne; PO can cause pseudomembranous colitis/antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD)
linezolid (Zyvox)
oxazolidinone antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic; MRSA and VRE; “linezolid is zolid”
amikacin (Amikin)
aminoglycoside antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bactericidal; nephrotoxic and ototoxic
gentamicin (Garamycin)
aminoglyside antibiotic; protein synthesis inhibitor; bactericidal; nephrotoxic and ototoxic; “gent”
sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ-TMP)
dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor; antibiotics for UTI and PUD; combination therapy that affects folic acid in bacteria; Steven-Johnson syndrome; sulfa drugs for UTI and prophylaxis of certain infectionst hat commonly occur in immunocompormised pts
cross-sensitivity between allergies to sulfa antibiotics and other sulfonamide-containing drugs like furosemide
literature does not support it
ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
fluoroquinolone antibiotic; UTI and PUD; photosensitivity and chelation; rarely tendon rupture
levofloxacin (Levaquin)
fluoroquinolone antibiotic; UTI and PUD; left-handed isomer of ofloxacin; photosensitivity and chelation; rarely tendon rupture
metronidazole (Flagyl)
nitroimidazole antibiotic; UTI and PUD; treats various infections including H. pylori as part of triple therapy; disulfiram reaction where pt may experience serious n/v; adverse effect with alcohol involving projectile vomiting
four major anti-TB drugs
rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinimide, ethambutol (r-i-p-e); non-drug resistant, non-HIV pts take all four drugs for two months and then isoniazid and rifampin together for two more months
rifampin (Rifadin)
anti-TB agent; taken for six months; turns secretions like tears, sweat, and urine red
isoniazid (INH)
anti-TB agent; taken for six months; possible adverse effect neuritis
pyrazinamide (PZA)
anti-TB drug; taken for two months; possible adverse effect polyarthritis
ethambutol (Myambutol)
anti-TB drug; taken for two months; adverse effect of optic neuritis
two general types of antifungals
systemic (in the body) and dermatologic or topical (on the skin)
amphotericin B (Fungizone)
antifungal; systemic infections
fluconazole (Diflucan)
antifungal; vaginal yeast infections
nystatin (Mycostatin)
antifungal; thrust or yeast infections; not a cholesterol-lowering statin
oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
non-HIV antiviral; influenza A and B; work when taken within 48 hours of the infection
zanimivir (Relenza)
non-HIV antiviral; influenza A and B; works within 48 hours of the infection. comes in a Diskhaler that gets powder into the lungs but is difficult for pts with dexterity issues
acyclovir (Zovirax)
non-HIV antiviral; HSV and varicella-zoster virus (HSV and VSV); prevents recurrences and treats infection; does not cure; 5x daily
valacyclovir (Valtrex)
non-HIV antiviral; HSV and varicella-zoster virus (HSV and VSV); prevents recurrences and treats infection; does not cure; turns into an active drug in the body (acyclovir); b.i.d.
palivizumab (Synagis)
non-HIV antiviral; respiratory syncytial virus; vaccine
respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
usually unproblematic in healthy adults but potentially deadly in infants younger than one year old
enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) T-20
HIV antiviral; fusion inhibitor; prevents HIV virus from fusing with cell
maraviroc (Selzentry) (MVC)
HIV antiviral; cellular chemokine receptor (CCR5) antagonist; HIV uses CCR5 to enter the cell
efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir (Atripla) (EFV/FTC/TDF)
HIV antiviral; non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) with 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs); HIV uses transcriptase inside of the cell
raltegravir (Isentress) (RAL)
HIV antiviral; integrase strand transfer inhibitor; HIV uses integrase inside of the cell
darunavir (Prezista) (DRV)
HIV antiviral; protease inhibitor
benzocaine (Anbesol)
OTC local anesthetic ester type
two major classes of local anesthetics
esters and amides
esters are usually given as
topical agents b/c they are more allergenic when injected
amides are usually given as
well tolerated/less allergenic when injected compared to esters
lidocaine (Solarcaine)
OTC local anesthetic amide type; often used topically and OTC for sunburns; injectable and patch forms by rx; paramedic use for arrhythmias as injectable (L-E-A-N)
meclizine (Dramamine, AntiVert)
OTC antivertigo medication, antiemetic/motion sickness; dizziness tx
acetaminophen/diphenhydramine (Tylenol PM)
OTCH non-narcotic analgesic/sedative-hypnotic; aches and sedating first-generation antihistamine
eszopiclone (Lunesta)
benzodiazepine-like sedative-hypnootic; sleeping pill
Zolpidem (Ambien, Ambien CR)
benzodiazepine-like sedative-hypnotic; sleeping pill; CR for people who have difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) and those with difficulty falling asleep (DFA); non-CR works for DFA
ramelteon (Rozerem)
melatonin receptor agonist; sedative-hypnotic
citalopram (Celexa)
antidepressant; SSRI; selectively inhibit reuptake (breakdown) of serotonin within neurons; improves mood
escitalopram (Lexapro)
antidepressant; SSRI; selectively inhibits reuptake of serotonin within neurons; improves mood
sertraline (Zoloft)
antidepressant; SSRI; selectively inhibits reuptake of serotonin within neurons; improves mood
fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem)
SSRI AD; first SSRI to make it to market; also indicated for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMD) as Sarafem
paroxetine (Paxil, Paxil CR)
SSRI AD; CR with fewer initial side effects and easier to dose
SSRIs
ADs that selectively inhibit the reuptake of serotonin within the neurons and improve mood
duloxetine (Cymbalta)
SNRI AD; affect serotonin and norepi
venlafaxine (Effexor)
SNRI AD; affect serotonin and norepi
amitriptyline (Elavil)
TCAD; three-ring chemical structure
isocarboxazid (Marplan)
MAOI AD; blocks the enzyme monoamine oxidase that breaks down NTS to elevate monoamine NTS; elevates pt mood
bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban)
smoking cessation; first marketed as Wellbutrin, atypical AD; risk in pts with history of seizures
varenicline (Chantix)
smoking cessation; causes distressing dreams, suicidal thoughts, adverse affects
alprazolam (Xanax)
benzodiazepine; relief from anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms
two endings to benzodiazepines
-azolam, -azepam
why did benzos replace barbiturates as a sleep aid?
barbiturates cause respiratory depression
midazolam (Versed)
benzodiazepine; relieves anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms
clonazepam (Klonopin)
benzodiazepine; relieves anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms
lorazepam (Ativan)
benzodiazepine; relieves anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms
atomoxetine (Strattera)
ADHD; non-stimulant; non-scheduled; no potential for abuse
dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
ADHD; schedule II stimulant; helps focus
methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta)
ADHD, schedule II stimulant; helps focus; long-acting med taken once daily
lithium (Lithobid)
bipolar disorder; simple salt; mood stabilizer; may cause electrolyte imbalances (cation); what happens to sodium happens to lithium; toxic or subtherapeutic if too much is retained or excreted
risperidone
bipolar disorder medication; controls certain symptoms until lithium level is correct
schizophrenia drug classifications
typical (first-generation) or atypical (second-generation)
high potency first-generation/typical schizophrenia drugs
more EPS, less sedation
classifications of typical/first-generation schizophrenia medication
high potency and low potency
low potency first-generation/typical schizophrenic drugs
more sedation, fewer EPS
extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)
movement disorders associated with antipsychotics
for what are typical antipsychotics prescribed?
schizophrenia with positive symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia
atypical/second-generation antipsychotics
fewer EPS; more negative metabolic effects like weight gain, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia; work for positive symptoms and negative symptoms (poor motivation, emotional and social withdrawal)
chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
first-generation/typical antipsychotic (FGA) low potency; schizophrenia medication; more sedation; fewer EPS; positive symptoms
haloperidol (Haldol)
first-generation/typical antipsychotic (FGA) high potency; more EPS; less sedation; positive symptoms
risperidone (Risperdal)
second-generation/atypical antipsychotic (SGA); schizophrenia; used with lithium before correct lithium dose is found; fewer ESP; more negative metabolic effects like DM, hyperlipidemia, weight gain; positive and negative symptoms
quetiapine (Seroquel)
second-generation/atypical antipsychotic (SGA); schizophrenia; fewer EPS; more negative metabolic effects like DM, hyperlipidemia, weight gain; positive and negative sx
carbamazepine (Tegretol)
traditional antiepileptic
divalproex (Depakote)
traditional antiepileptic
phenytoin (Dilantin)
traditional antiepileptic
gabapentin (Neurontin)
newer antiepileptic; off-label for neurologic pain; does not directly affect GABA
pregabalin (Lyrica)
newer antiepileptic
levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet)
Parkinson’s drug; restores NTS dopamine responsible for proper motor fxn depleted by Parkinson’s; levodopa is antiparkinsonian and carbidopa reduces degredation of levodopa; working synergistically
selegiline (Eldepryl)
Parkinson’s drug
donepezil (Aricept)
Alzheimer’s drug; restores NTS Ach by reducing breakdown by acetylcholinesterase; improves recollection
memantine (Namenda)
Alzheimer’s drug; antagonizes receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate
scopolamine (Transderm-Scop)
motion sickness drug; Transderm-Scop is transdermal scopolamine; often used on cruise ships
omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Lovaza)
OTC or rx antihyperlipidemic; fish oil; reduces the impact of cholesterol
niacin (Niaspan ER)
OTC antihyperlipidemic; reduces cholesterol in the body; facial flushing prevented by ASA 30 mins before tx
aspirin (Ecotrin)
OTC antiplatelet; 81 mg daily is to prevent platelet sticking, CVA, and MI; daily 81 mg is not for analgesia or fever reduction
order of diuretics
osmotic diuretics work at PCT; loop diuretics work at Loop of Henle; thiazide diuretics work at DCT; potassium sparing diuretics work at collecting duct
osmotic diuretics work at
PCT
loop diuretics work at
Loop of Henle
thiazide diuretics work at
DCT
potassium sparing diuretics work at
collecting duct
order of most to least diuresis by diuretic class
osmotic > loop > thiazide > potassium sparing
mannitol (Osmitrol)
osmotic diuretic; reduces intracranial pressure (ICP) in an emergency; works at PCT
furosemide (Lasix)
loop diuretic; works at Loop of Henle; Lasix lasts 6 hours
hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide)
thiazide diuretic; works at DCT; initial tx of HTN
triamteren/hydrochlorothiazide (Dyazide)
potassium sparing and thiazide diuretics; combination to keep potassium in balance; modest diuresis; triamterene is potassium sparing diuretic
spironolactone (Aldactone)
potassium sparing diuretic; works at CD; can cause gynecomastia; blocks aldosterone
potassium chloride (K-Dur)
electrolyte replenishment; used when loop diuretic lowers pt potassium level; long duration; used when potassium is “dur”
doxazosin (Cardura)
alpha-1 antagonist; vasodilation; reduces BP; benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)
beta-blockers can treat
angina pectoris, CHF, stage fright, migraine, HTN
beta-1 receptors are concentrated in the
heart
beta-2 receptors are concentrated in the
lungs
clonidine (Catapres)
alpha-2 agonist; reduces peripheral vascular resistance; works in brain; single therapy or with methylphenidate (Concerta) for ADHD
propanolol (Inderal)
first-generation non-selective beta blocker; affects b-1 in heart to lower HR; affects b-2 in lungs and causes bronchoconstriction; side effect is bronchoconstriction
atenolol (Tenormin)
second-generation selective beta blocker; b-1 selective
metoprolol tartate (Lopressor)
second-generation selective beta blocker; b-1 selective; reduces BP; body compensates with vasoconstricted arterioles; shorter duration of action than metoprolol succinate
metoprolol succinate (Toprol XL)
second-generation selective beta blocker; b-1 selective; reduces BP; body compensates for reduced BP with arteriolar vasoconstriction; long-acting metoprolol, longer than metropolol tartate
carvedilol (Coreg)
non-beta selective third generation beta blocker; vasodilating
enalapril (Vasotec)
ACE inhibitor; stop the body from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II
lisinopril (Zestril)
ACE inhibitor; stops body from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II
losartan (Cozaar)
angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB); blocks/inhibits connection between angiotensin II and receptor that causes vasoconstriction; alternate to ACE-I b/c ACE-I causes cough
olmesartan (Benicar)
ARB; blocks/inhibits connection between angiotensin II and receptor that causes vasoconstriction; alternate to ACE-I b/c ACE-I causes cough
valsartan (Diovan)
ARB; blocks/inhibits connection angiotensin II and receptor that causes vasoconstriction; alternate to ACE-I b/c ACE-I causes cough
calcium channel blocker (CCB) classes
both vasodilate; non-dihydropyridines affect heart directly and are antidysrhythmics; dihydropyridines only vasodilate
CCB uses
prevent uterine contractions; vasodilate
diltiazem (Cardizem)
non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker; vasodilates, affects heart directly, antidysrhythmic
verapamil (Calan)
non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker; vasodilates, affects heart directly, antidysrhythmic; causes constipation
amlodipine (Norvasc)
dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker; only vasodilates
nifedipine (Procardia)
dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker; only vasodilates; best CCB to prevent uterine conctraction b/c it does not suppress mother and fetal heart as non-dihydropyridines do
nitroglycerin (Nitrostat)
vasodilator
atorvastatin (Lipitor)
antihyperlipidemic; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
rosuvastatin (Crestor)
antihyperlipidemic; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
fenofibrate (Tricor)
antihyperlipidemic; fibric acid derivative
enoxaparin (Lovenox)
anticoagulant; injectable; affects coagulation in slower moving blood vessels like veins; affects clotting factors to prevent thrombosis; more expensive per dose than heparin but can be taken home; bridge therapy in pt starting warfarin therapy
heparin
anticoagulant; injectable; affects clotting factors to prevent thrombosis
warfarin (Coumadin)
oral anticoagulant; measure effectiveness with INR; antidote is vitamin K
INR
international normalized ratio; determines warfarin effectiveness
dabigatran (Pradaxa)
anticoagulant; affects clotting factors to reduce thrombosis; does not require INR monitoring
clopidogrel (Plavix)
antiplatelet; reduced likelihood of platelets sticking together and clotting; similar moa to ASA for clotting; decrease how sticky platelets are in high-pressure vessels such as arteries to prevent clot and MI/CVA
ASA clotting
reduces stickiness of hgih-pressure vessels such as arteries to prevent clot and ensuing MI/CVA
digoxin (Lanoxin)
cardiac glycoside; antidysrhythmic; increases heart’s force of contraction; positive inotropic affect; changes electrochemistry of the heart
atropine (AtroPen)
anticholinergic; prevents bradycardia; ABDUCT (anhidrosis, blurry vision secondary to dry eyes, dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation, tachycardia); treats cholinergic poisonings
anticholinergic effects
anhidrosis, blurry vision (secondary to dry eyes), dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation, tachycardia
cholinergic effects
wet effects: sweating, lacrimination, hypersalivation, urinary incontinence, diarrhea, bradycardia
regular insulin (Humulin R)
short-acting; OTC for self-pay pts; not shortest-acting (that is Humalog); used when need to adjust dosages on sliding scale; refrigerate
NPH insulin (Humulin N)
intermediate duration of action; OTC for self-pay pts; refrigerate
Humalog
shortest-acting insulin; refrigerate
levonorgestrel (Plan B One-Step)
emergency contraception; within 72 after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy; OTC; progestin hormone
four major classes of insulin used in tx
rapid-acting works in 15 minutes and lasts 4 hours [insulin lispro (Humalog)]; short-acting works in 30 minutes and lasts 6-8 hours [regular insulin (Humulin R)]; intermediate duration works in 1 hour and lasts 14-24 hours [NPH insulin (Humulin N)]; long duration works in an hour and lasts 24 hours [insulin glargine (Lantus, Toujeo)]
metformin (Glucophage)
oral anti-diabetic biguanide
sitagliptin (Januvia)
oral anti-diabetic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor
glipizide (Glucotrol)
oral anti-diabetic sulfonylureas 2nd-generation
glyburide (DiaBeta)
oral anti-diabetic sulfonylureas 2nd-generation
glucagon
hypoglycemia drug
levothyroxine (Synthroid)
hypothyroidism medication; extra thyroid hormone as replacement; supplementation
propylthiouracil (PTU)
drug for hyperthyroidism; reduces effects of TH
testosterone (AndroGel)
testosterone
norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol/ferrous fumarate (Loestrin 24 Fe)
combined oral contraceptive; reduces length of menstruation, with iron supplementation, to prevent an anemic situation
norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol (Tri-Sprintec)
combined oral contraceptive; tri-phasic birth control with three different doses of estrogen and progestin taken variously throughout the month to mimic the body’s naturally changing hormonel evels
norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol (OrthoEvra)
contraceptive transdermal patch; “OrthoEva is a patch, put it on your arm, your abs, your buttock or back, and then take it off a week after that”
etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol (NuvaRing)
vaginally inserted contraceptive ring
overactive bladder (OAB) (incontinence)
inability to retain urine due to overactive bladder
urinary retention
difficulty in urination
erectile dysfunction (ED) (impotence)
inability to achieve or maintain an erection
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
benign (not harmful) prostrate growth or increase in size; sometimes difficulty with urine control
oxybutynin (Ditropan, Oxytrol OTC)
medication for overactive bladder (incontinence)
solifenacin (VESIcare)
medication for overacting bladder (incontinence); once daily
tolterodine (Detrol)
medication for overactive bladder (incontinence)
bethanechol (Urecholine)
medication for urinary retention; cholinergic; assists bladder muscles in expelling urine
sildenafil (Viagra)
erectile dysfunction; PDE-5 inhibitor; do not use with nitrates like nitroglycerin; aids in erection
tadalafil (Cialis)
erectile dysfunction; PDE-5 inhibitor; “weekend pill” that lasts the weekend; long half-life; aids in erection
tamsulosin (FloMax)
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH); alpha blocker; allows for maximum urinary flow
alfuzosin (Uroxatral)
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH); alpha blocker
dutasteride (Avodart)
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH); 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors
finasteride (Proscar, Propecia)
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH); 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor; Propecia helps hair growth
alopecia
hair loss

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