Medical Terminology Chapter 4

Epidermis
Outer layer of skin

Keratin
horny, or cornified, layer composed of protein. It is contained in the hair, skin and nails

melanin
color, or pigmentation, of the skin

Dermis (also called the true skin)
inner layer of skin

sweat glands (also called sudoriferous glands)
tiny, coiled, tubular structures that emerge through pores on the skin’s surface

sabaceous glands
secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis

Hair
Compressed, keratinized cells that arise from hair follicles; the sacs that enclose the hair fibers

nails
originate in the epidermis. Nails are found on the upper surface of the ends of the fingers and toes. the white area at teh base of teh nail is called the lunula, or moon

Cutane, derm, or dermat
skin

hidr
sweat

kerat
horny tissue, hard

onych, ungu
nail

seb
sebum (oil)

trich
hair

aden
gland

aut
self

bi
life

coni
dust

crypt
hidden

heter
other

myc
fungus

necr
death (cells, body)

pachy
thick

rhytid
wrinkles

staphyl
grapelike clusters

strept
twisted chains

xer
dry

epi-
on, upon, over

intra-
within

para-
beside, beyond, around

per-
through

sub-
under, below

-coccus (pl. cocci)
berry shaped (form of bacterium)

-ectomy
excision or surgical removal

-ia
diseaded or abnormal state, condition of

-itis
inflammation

-malacia
softening

-opsy
view of, viewing

-orrhea
flow, excessive discharge

-phagia
eating or swallowing

-plasty
surgical repair

-tome
instrument used to cut

dermatitis
inflammation of the skin

dermatoconiosis
abnormal condition of the skin caused by dust

dermatofibroma
fibrous tumor of the skin

hidradenitis
inflammation of a sweat gland

leiodermia
condition of smooth skin

onychocryptosis
abnormal condition of a hidden nail (ingrown nail)

onychomalacia
softening of the nails

onychomycosis
abnormal condition of a fungus in the nails

onychophagia
eating the nails of nail biting

pachyderma
thickening of the skin

paronychia
diseased state around the nail

seborrhea
excessive discharge of sebum

trichomycosis
abnormal condition of a fungus in the hair

xeroderma
dry skin

abrasion
scraping away of the skin my mechanical process or injury

abscess
localized collection of pus

acne
inflammatory disease of the skin involving the sebaceous glands and hair follicles

actinic keratosis
a precancerous skin condition of horny tissue formation that results from excessive exposure to sunlight

basal cell carcinoma (BCC)
epithelial tumor arising from the epidermis. It seldom metastasizes but invades local tissue. Common on the face of elderly individuals.

candidiasis
an infection of the skin, mouth, (thrush) or vagina caused by the yeast like fungus Candida Albicans. Candida is normally present in the mucous membranes; overgrowth causes an infection. Esophageal cadidiasis is often seen in AIDS patients.

carbuncle
skin infection composed of a cluster of boils caused by staphylococcal bacteria

cellulitis
inflammation of the connective tissue caused by infection, leading to redness, swelling, and fever

contusion
injury with no break in the skin, characterized by pain, swelling, discoloration (also called a bruise)

eczema
noninfectious, inflammatory skin disease characterized by reness, blisters, scabs, and itching

fissure
slit or crack-like sore in the skin

furuncle
painful skin node caused by staphylococcal bacteria in a hair follicle (also called a boil)

gangrene
death of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion

herpes
inflammatory skin disease caused by herpes virus characterized by small blisters in clusters. there are many types of herpes. Herpes simples, for example, causes fever blisters and herpes zoster, also called shingles, is characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow nerves inflamed by the virus.

impetigo
superficial skin infection, characterized by pustules and caused by either staphylococci or streptococci

Kaposi’s sarcoma
a cancerous condition starting as purple or brown pimples on the feet, which spreads through the skin to the lymph nodes and internal organs. Frequently seen in AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

laceration
torn, ragged edged wound

lesion
any pathological change in the structure or function of tissue resulting from injury or disease

pediculosis
invasion into the skin and hair by lice

psoriasis
chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales

scabies
skin infection caused by the itch mite, a minute animal whose relative is the tick. The infection causes severe itching with red papules

scleroderma
a disease characterized by chronic hardening (induration) of the connective tissue of the skin and other body organs

squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCa)
a malignant growth that develops from scale like epithelial tissue. On the skin it appears as a firm, red, painless bump. It also is found in other body sites

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Inflammatory disease of the joints and the protein in the white fibers (callogen) of the connective tissue of the skin. It also may affect other organs.

tinea
fungus infection of the skin, commonly called ringworm

urticaria
an itching skin eruption composed of wheals of varying size and shape

biopsy
view of life (the removal of living tissue from the body to be viewed under the microscope)

dermatoautoplasty
surgical repair using one’s own skin (for the skin graft (auto graft))

deratoheteroplasty
surgical repair using skin from others (for the skin graft (allograft))

dermatoplasty
surgical repair of the skin

onychectomy
excision of a nail

rhytidectomy
excision of wrinkles

rhytidoplasty
surgical repair of wrinkles

dermatologist
physician who specialized in skin (diseases)

dermatology
study of the skin

dermatome
instrument used to cut skin

epidermal
pertaining to upon the skin

erythroderma
red skin (abnormal redness of the skin)

hypodermic
pertaining to under the skin

intradermal
pertaining to within the skin

keratogenic
originating in horny tissue

leukoderma
white skin (less color than normal)

necrosis
abnormal condition of death (cells and tissue die because of disease)

percutaneous
pertaining to through the skin

staphylococcus
berry shaped bacteria in grapelike clusters (these bacteria cause many skin diseases)

streptococcus
berry shaped bacteria in twisted chains

subcutaneous
pertaining to under the skin

ungual
pertaining to the nail

xanthoderma
yellow skin (also called jaundice)

adipose
fat

albino
white

allergy
hypersensitivity to a substance

alopecia
baldness

cicatrix
scar

cytomegalovirus (CMV)
a herpes virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised

debridment
removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter from an open wound

decubitus ulcer
bedsore; an open area of skin caused by pressure or irritation

dermabrasion
procedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material, such as sandpaper

diaphoresis
profuse sweating

disseminate
to scatter over a considerable area

ecchymosis
escape of blood into the tissues, causing superficial discoloration; a black and blue mark

edema
puffy swelling of tissue from the accumulation of fluid

emollient
agent that softens and soothes the skin

erythema
redness

induration
abnormal hard spots

jaundice
condition characterized by a yellow tinge to the skin (xanthoderma)

keloid
overgrowth of scar tissue

leukoplakia
condition characterized by white spots or patches on mucous membrane, which may be precancerous

macule
flat, colored spot on the skin

nevus
circumscribed pigmented area present at birth; mole, birthmark

pallor
paleness

papule
small, solid skin elevation (pimple)

petechia
pinpoint skin hemorrhages

pruritis
severe itching

purpura
disorder characterized by hemorrhages into the tissue, giving the skin a purple red discoloration

pustule
elevation of skin containing pus

ulcer
eroded sore on the skin or mucous membrane

verrucia
circumscribed cutaneous elevation caused by a virus; wart

vesicle
small elevation of the epidermis containing liquid (blister)

virus
an infectious agent

wheal
transitory, round, itchy elevation of the skin with a white center and a red surrounding area (hive)

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