Medical Terminology ch. 4 Pulmonology

alveolus
Hollow sphere of cells that expands and contracts with each breath. O2 and CO2 are exchanged between the alveolus and a nearby small blood vessel (capillary).

apex
the highest point, tip

bronchus
one of a pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs

bronchiole
small branch of a bronchus within lung

cilia
short, hair-like structures made of microtubules that enable movement of cells or movement of materials outside a cell

deoxygenated
Blood in the veins that is low in oxygen content.

diaphragm
a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities

epiglottis
lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway

Eupneic
passing or able to pass air in and out of the lungs normally

Exhalation
breathing out

Hilum
(anatomy) a depression or fissure where vessels or nerves or ducts enter a bodily organ

Inhalation
breathing in

Inspiration
the act of inhaling

Intercostal muscles
rib muscles, pull the ribs up and out. This enlarges the thoracic cavity and creates negative internal pressure that causes air to flow into the lungs.

Larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

Lobe
(anatomy) a somewhat rounded subdivision of a bodily organ or part

Lumen
a cavity or passage in a tubular organ

Lung
either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates

Mediastinum
The part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus

Metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes

mucosa
The mucus-secreting epithelia that line the respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital tracts. The conjunctiva of the eye and the mammary glands are also in this category.

nasal cavity
hollow area inside the nose

oxygenated
Containing oxygen.

oxyhemoglobin
compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin

parenchyma
funtional part of the lung

parietal pleura
the membrane that lines the thoracic cavity

pharynx
throat, throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx

phrenic nerve
nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration

pleura
membrane surrounding the lungs

respiration
the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation

respiratory system
brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide. It includes the nose, trachea, and lungs.

ribs
The bones in the chest that protect the heart and lungs.

septum
(anatomy) a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities

surfactant
a substance capable of reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved

thoracic cavity
the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart

thorax
the part of the human body between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates

trachea
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi

tracheobronchial tree
the structures of the trachea and the bronchi.

turbinates
Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity- they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane.

visceral pleura
Membrane that covers the lungs

asthma
lung disorder in which the bronchial tubes contract quickly and cause shortness of breath, wheezing, or coughing; may occur as an allergic reaction

bronchitis
inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes

bronchiectasis
chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection in the lower lobes of the lung

rales
abnormal crackling sound made during inspiration

pleural friction rub
abnormal breath sound that is creaky and grating in nature and is heard on inspiration and expiration

rhonchi
continuous rumbling, snoring, or rattling sounds from obstruction of large airways with secretions; most prominent on expiration; change often evident after coughing or suctioning.

stridor
high-pitched sound heard on inspiration; upper-airway sound indicating partial obstruction of the trachea or larynx

wheezes
Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing

adult respiratory distress syndrome
Loss of surfactant in alveoli due to severe respiratory infections or other sources of pulmonary injury, with resulting alveolar collapse

atelectasis
collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants)

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

cystic fibrosis
a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consquent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers – most common lethal genetic disease)

influenza
viral infection of the respiratory system characterized by chills, fever, body aches, and fatigue.

Reye Syndrome
Caused by using aspirin to relieve the symptoms of flu. Reason is not known. Causes very high level of ammonia in the blood and brain, with vomiting, seizures, and liver failure. Sometimes Fatal.

Empyema
a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)

Legionnair’s disease
Severe, sometimes fatal, bacterial infection that begins with flu-like symptoms, body aches, and fever, followed by severe pneumonia with possible liver and kidney degeneration.

lung cancer
malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchi

occupational lung disease
Related to inhaling toxic gases or foreign particles

pneumonia
respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants

aspiration pneumonia
Pneumonia that can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs

bacterial pneumonia
Pneumonia often caused by streptococcus pneumoniae, only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination

broncho-pneumonia
Pneumonia that affects the bronchi, bronchioles, and the adjacent lung tissue and alveoli

double pneumonia
Pneumonia that involves both lungs

lobar pneumonia
pneumonia affecting one or more lobes of the lung

pneumococcal pnuemonia
Acute pneumonia caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae.

viral pneumonia
pneumonia caused by a virus

walking pneumonia
Mild form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli

pulmonary embolism
blockage of the pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by a blood clot

Sternal retractions
Sternum bends the flexible breast bone inwards

Intercostal retractions
pull in the soft tissue between the ribs

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
acute viral respiratory infection that begins like the flu but quickly progresses to severe dyspnea

turberculosis
A contagious bacterial infection (Mycobacterium) that mainly involves the lungs, but may spread to other organs. *An invasive, debilitating infection caused by the acid-fast organism.

hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity

pectus excavatum
congenital malformation of the chest wall characterized by a funnel-shaped depression of the lower end of the sternum and costal cartilages

pleural effusion
escape of fluid into the pleural space as a result of inflammation

pleurisy
increase of fluid pervades the pleural cavity, resulting in layers adhering to each other.

pneumothorax
Accumulation of air in the pleural space

apnea
Temporary cessation of breathing

bradypnea
slow breathing

cough
the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise

dyspnea
difficult or labored respiration

orthopnea
severe dyspnea in which breathing is very difficult in any position other than sitting erect or standing

tachypnea
fast breathing

anoxia
ABSENCE OF OXYGEN IN THE BODY

asphyxia
Condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen

Sudden infant death syndrome
completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant. The most common cause of death between the second week and first year of life (crib death).

cyanosis
a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes

hypercapnia
the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood

hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood

arterial blood gases
measurement of the pH level and the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in arterial blood

carboxyhemoglobin
measures carbon monoxide poisoning..tx for the CO out by using hyperbaric chamber

pulmonary function test
breathing equipment used to determine respiratory function and measure lung volumes and gas exchange

spirometry
portion of pulmonary function testing that is a direct measurement of lung volume and capacity

pulse oximetry
a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip

sputum culture and sensitivity
testing sputum by placing it on a culture medium and observing any bacterial growth, the specimen is then tested to determine antibiotic effectiveness

tuberculosis test
Intradermal test using purified proteins derivative to test for either dormant or active tuberculois

mantoux test
Intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen

Chest radiography
helps in the diagnosis of large variety of pulmonary problems, including pneumonia, lung cancer, emphysema, TB, and pulmonary edema

CT scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.

MRI scan
uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue

lung scan
also known as a V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan, records the emissions from radioisotopes that indicate how well gas and blood are traveling through the lungs

auscultation
listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)

cardiopulmonary resuscitation
emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation and external cardiac massage

endotracheal intubation
the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway

laryngoscope
a medical instrument for examining the larynx

heimlich maneuver
procedure that removes food or other obstacles from a choking person’s airway

incentive spirometry
common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and repeatedly sustain an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications

oxygen therapy
this an intervention for administering more oxygen that than is present in the atmophere to prevent or relieve hypxemia. requieres flow meter, and oxygen analzyer or humiffier and an oxygen delievery device

vital signs
Determinations that provide information about body conditions; include temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure

bronchoscopy
the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope

chest tube insertion
Surgical procedure that uses a clear plastic tube inserted between the ribs into the thoracic cavity to remove air or blood due to trauma or infection.

Lung resection
Used to remove small, peripherally located benign primary tumors, or for localized inflammatory disease, and to aid in diagnosis of chronic diffuse lung disease.

thoracocentesis
removal of fluid from the chest by centesis for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes

tracheostomy
a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air

antibiotic drug
a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections

antitubercular drug
Treats tuberculosis

antitussive drug
suppresses cough

Bronchodilator drug
used to relieve bronchospasm associated with respiratory disorders (asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphazema)

chemotherapy drug
a drug that is used to treat cancer
chemical agent used to treat disease

corticosteroid drug
a hormone-like preparation administered primarily as a anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant

expectorant drug
reduces thickness of mucus so u can cough productively

leukotriene receptor blockers
used for the treatment and management of asthma.

mast cell stabilizer drug
Stabilize mast cells in the respiratory tract and prevent them from releasing histamine that causes bronchospasm during an allergic reaction.

conchae
another word for turbinates

mucus
Traps inhaled dust, pollen, smoke, and bacteria.

Thoracotomy
Incision into the thoracic cavity. First step of a surgical procedure involving the thoracic cavity and lungs.

Oxygen Therapy-Nasal cannula
Oxygen face mask.

Ambu Bag
Hand held squeeze bag used to manually breathe for a patient for a temporary time.

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
Sever pneumoniea caused by the fungus pneumocystis jiroveci. Most people are infected with this microorganism in childhood. Causes mild infection and then lies dormant in small cysts. In patients with AIDS emerges from the cysts and causes disease.
**Known as an opportunistic Infection.

Respiratory Control Centers
In the brain. Regulates the depth and rate of respiration. Sends nerve impulses to the phrenic nerve causing the diaphragm to contract.

Respiratory System
Consists of the right and left lungs and air passageways that connect the lungs to the outside of the body.

Purpose of the Respiratory System
Bring O2 into the body and expel CO2.

ABG
Arterical Blood gases

AFB
Acid Fast Bacillus

A&P
Auscultation and Percussion

ARDS
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

BS
Breath Sounds

C&S
Culture and Sensitivity

CF
Cystic Fibrosis

CO
Carbon Monoxide

COPD
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

CPAP
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

CPR
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

CXR
Chest X-ray

DOE
Dyspnea On Exertion

ETT
Endotracheal Tube

FEV1
Froced Expiratory Volume (in 1 second)

FiO2
Fraction (percentage ) of inspired oxygen.

FVC
Forced Vital Capacity

HMD
Hyaline Membrane Disease

LLL
Left Lower Lobe

LUL
Left Upper Lobe

MDI
Metered-Dose Inhaler

PCO2
Partial Pressure of CO2.

PCP
Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia.

PFT
Pulmonary Function Test

PND
Paroxysmal Noctural Dyspnea

PO2
Partial Pressure of Oxygen.

PPD
Protein Purified Derivative.(TB test);
Packs Per Day

RA
Room Air (no supplemental oxygen.

RDS
Respiratory Distress Syndrome

RLL
Right Lower Lobe

RML
Right Middle Lobe

RRT
Registered Respiratory Therapist

RUL
Right Upper Lobe

SARS
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

SOB
Shortness of Breath

TB
Tuberculosis

TPR
Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration

URI
Upper Respiratory Infection

V/Q
Ventilation Perfusion (Scan)

Tracheorrhaphy is the rupture of the trachea. False A procedure in which the patient is propped at different angles to drain secretions from the lungs is known as____ drainage. postural WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

Nasal Means pertaining to the nose Cavity Means space WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample The nares Is the space inside the nose Septum The partition that …

Root Provides the core meaning of the word example: pneumonia->Greek for lung or air->pneum Greek meaning lung or air->Pneumonia=infection of the lung tissue Combining Vowel Roots joined to other elements in a medical term by adding the letter “o” to …

Adenoidectomy Removal of the adenoids. Adenoid hypertrophy Increased development. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Adenoids Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx. Alveolar Pertaining to an alveolus. Alveolus …

What structure acts as a lid to prevent food from entering the lungs? a. epiglottis b. thyroid cartilage c. larynx epiglottis A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

adenoids lymphatic tissue forming a prominence on the wall of the recess of the nasopharynx alveoli air cells of the lungs; known as the pulmonary parenchyma (functional units of the lungs) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

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