Medical Terminology ch. 4 Pulmonology

Hollow sphere of cells that expands and contracts with each breath. O2 and CO2 are exchanged between the alveolus and a nearby small blood vessel (capillary).

the highest point, tip

one of a pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs

small branch of a bronchus within lung

short, hair-like structures made of microtubules that enable movement of cells or movement of materials outside a cell

Blood in the veins that is low in oxygen content.

a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities

lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway

passing or able to pass air in and out of the lungs normally

breathing out

(anatomy) a depression or fissure where vessels or nerves or ducts enter a bodily organ

breathing in

the act of inhaling

Intercostal muscles
rib muscles, pull the ribs up and out. This enlarges the thoracic cavity and creates negative internal pressure that causes air to flow into the lungs.

voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

(anatomy) a somewhat rounded subdivision of a bodily organ or part

a cavity or passage in a tubular organ

either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates

The part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus

set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes

The mucus-secreting epithelia that line the respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital tracts. The conjunctiva of the eye and the mammary glands are also in this category.

nasal cavity
hollow area inside the nose

Containing oxygen.

compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin

funtional part of the lung

parietal pleura
the membrane that lines the thoracic cavity

throat, throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx

phrenic nerve
nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration

membrane surrounding the lungs

the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation

respiratory system
brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide. It includes the nose, trachea, and lungs.

The bones in the chest that protect the heart and lungs.

(anatomy) a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities

a substance capable of reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved

thoracic cavity
the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart

the part of the human body between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates

membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi

tracheobronchial tree
the structures of the trachea and the bronchi.

Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity- they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane.

visceral pleura
Membrane that covers the lungs

lung disorder in which the bronchial tubes contract quickly and cause shortness of breath, wheezing, or coughing; may occur as an allergic reaction

inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes

chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection in the lower lobes of the lung

abnormal crackling sound made during inspiration

pleural friction rub
abnormal breath sound that is creaky and grating in nature and is heard on inspiration and expiration

continuous rumbling, snoring, or rattling sounds from obstruction of large airways with secretions; most prominent on expiration; change often evident after coughing or suctioning.

high-pitched sound heard on inspiration; upper-airway sound indicating partial obstruction of the trachea or larynx

Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing

adult respiratory distress syndrome
Loss of surfactant in alveoli due to severe respiratory infections or other sources of pulmonary injury, with resulting alveolar collapse

collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants)

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

cystic fibrosis
a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consquent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers – most common lethal genetic disease)

viral infection of the respiratory system characterized by chills, fever, body aches, and fatigue.

Reye Syndrome
Caused by using aspirin to relieve the symptoms of flu. Reason is not known. Causes very high level of ammonia in the blood and brain, with vomiting, seizures, and liver failure. Sometimes Fatal.

a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)

Legionnair’s disease
Severe, sometimes fatal, bacterial infection that begins with flu-like symptoms, body aches, and fever, followed by severe pneumonia with possible liver and kidney degeneration.

lung cancer
malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchi

occupational lung disease
Related to inhaling toxic gases or foreign particles

respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants

aspiration pneumonia
Pneumonia that can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs

bacterial pneumonia
Pneumonia often caused by streptococcus pneumoniae, only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination

Pneumonia that affects the bronchi, bronchioles, and the adjacent lung tissue and alveoli

double pneumonia
Pneumonia that involves both lungs

lobar pneumonia
pneumonia affecting one or more lobes of the lung

pneumococcal pnuemonia
Acute pneumonia caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae.

viral pneumonia
pneumonia caused by a virus

walking pneumonia
Mild form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli

pulmonary embolism
blockage of the pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by a blood clot

Sternal retractions
Sternum bends the flexible breast bone inwards

Intercostal retractions
pull in the soft tissue between the ribs

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
acute viral respiratory infection that begins like the flu but quickly progresses to severe dyspnea

A contagious bacterial infection (Mycobacterium) that mainly involves the lungs, but may spread to other organs. *An invasive, debilitating infection caused by the acid-fast organism.

accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity

pectus excavatum
congenital malformation of the chest wall characterized by a funnel-shaped depression of the lower end of the sternum and costal cartilages

pleural effusion
escape of fluid into the pleural space as a result of inflammation

increase of fluid pervades the pleural cavity, resulting in layers adhering to each other.

Accumulation of air in the pleural space

Temporary cessation of breathing

slow breathing

the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise

difficult or labored respiration

severe dyspnea in which breathing is very difficult in any position other than sitting erect or standing

fast breathing


Condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen

Sudden infant death syndrome
completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant. The most common cause of death between the second week and first year of life (crib death).

a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes

the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood

deficient amount of oxygen in the blood

arterial blood gases
measurement of the pH level and the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in arterial blood

measures carbon monoxide poisoning..tx for the CO out by using hyperbaric chamber

pulmonary function test
breathing equipment used to determine respiratory function and measure lung volumes and gas exchange

portion of pulmonary function testing that is a direct measurement of lung volume and capacity

pulse oximetry
a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip

sputum culture and sensitivity
testing sputum by placing it on a culture medium and observing any bacterial growth, the specimen is then tested to determine antibiotic effectiveness

tuberculosis test
Intradermal test using purified proteins derivative to test for either dormant or active tuberculois

mantoux test
Intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen

Chest radiography
helps in the diagnosis of large variety of pulmonary problems, including pneumonia, lung cancer, emphysema, TB, and pulmonary edema

CT scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.

MRI scan
uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue

lung scan
also known as a V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan, records the emissions from radioisotopes that indicate how well gas and blood are traveling through the lungs

listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)

cardiopulmonary resuscitation
emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation and external cardiac massage

endotracheal intubation
the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway

a medical instrument for examining the larynx

heimlich maneuver
procedure that removes food or other obstacles from a choking person’s airway

incentive spirometry
common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and repeatedly sustain an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications

oxygen therapy
this an intervention for administering more oxygen that than is present in the atmophere to prevent or relieve hypxemia. requieres flow meter, and oxygen analzyer or humiffier and an oxygen delievery device

vital signs
Determinations that provide information about body conditions; include temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure

the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope

chest tube insertion
Surgical procedure that uses a clear plastic tube inserted between the ribs into the thoracic cavity to remove air or blood due to trauma or infection.

Lung resection
Used to remove small, peripherally located benign primary tumors, or for localized inflammatory disease, and to aid in diagnosis of chronic diffuse lung disease.

removal of fluid from the chest by centesis for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes

a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air

antibiotic drug
a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections

antitubercular drug
Treats tuberculosis

antitussive drug
suppresses cough

Bronchodilator drug
used to relieve bronchospasm associated with respiratory disorders (asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphazema)

chemotherapy drug
a drug that is used to treat cancer
chemical agent used to treat disease

corticosteroid drug
a hormone-like preparation administered primarily as a anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant

expectorant drug
reduces thickness of mucus so u can cough productively

leukotriene receptor blockers
used for the treatment and management of asthma.

mast cell stabilizer drug
Stabilize mast cells in the respiratory tract and prevent them from releasing histamine that causes bronchospasm during an allergic reaction.

another word for turbinates

Traps inhaled dust, pollen, smoke, and bacteria.

Incision into the thoracic cavity. First step of a surgical procedure involving the thoracic cavity and lungs.

Oxygen Therapy-Nasal cannula
Oxygen face mask.

Ambu Bag
Hand held squeeze bag used to manually breathe for a patient for a temporary time.

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
Sever pneumoniea caused by the fungus pneumocystis jiroveci. Most people are infected with this microorganism in childhood. Causes mild infection and then lies dormant in small cysts. In patients with AIDS emerges from the cysts and causes disease.
**Known as an opportunistic Infection.

Respiratory Control Centers
In the brain. Regulates the depth and rate of respiration. Sends nerve impulses to the phrenic nerve causing the diaphragm to contract.

Respiratory System
Consists of the right and left lungs and air passageways that connect the lungs to the outside of the body.

Purpose of the Respiratory System
Bring O2 into the body and expel CO2.

Arterical Blood gases

Acid Fast Bacillus

Auscultation and Percussion

Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Breath Sounds

Culture and Sensitivity

Cystic Fibrosis

Carbon Monoxide

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Chest X-ray

Dyspnea On Exertion

Endotracheal Tube

Froced Expiratory Volume (in 1 second)

Fraction (percentage ) of inspired oxygen.

Forced Vital Capacity

Hyaline Membrane Disease

Left Lower Lobe

Left Upper Lobe

Metered-Dose Inhaler

Partial Pressure of CO2.

Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia.

Pulmonary Function Test

Paroxysmal Noctural Dyspnea

Partial Pressure of Oxygen.

Protein Purified Derivative.(TB test);
Packs Per Day

Room Air (no supplemental oxygen.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Right Lower Lobe

Right Middle Lobe

Registered Respiratory Therapist

Right Upper Lobe

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Shortness of Breath


Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration

Upper Respiratory Infection

Ventilation Perfusion (Scan)

Tracheorrhaphy is the rupture of the trachea. False A procedure in which the patient is propped at different angles to drain secretions from the lungs is known as____ drainage. postural WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

Nasal Means pertaining to the nose Cavity Means space WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample The nares Is the space inside the nose Septum The partition that …

Root Provides the core meaning of the word example: pneumonia->Greek for lung or air->pneum Greek meaning lung or air->Pneumonia=infection of the lung tissue Combining Vowel Roots joined to other elements in a medical term by adding the letter “o” to …

Adenoidectomy Removal of the adenoids. Adenoid hypertrophy Increased development. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Adenoids Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx. Alveolar Pertaining to an alveolus. Alveolus …

What structure acts as a lid to prevent food from entering the lungs? a. epiglottis b. thyroid cartilage c. larynx epiglottis A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

adenoids lymphatic tissue forming a prominence on the wall of the recess of the nasopharynx alveoli air cells of the lungs; known as the pulmonary parenchyma (functional units of the lungs) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

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