Medical Ch 20-23

Patients requiring chronic dialysis:
are usually dialyzed every 2 or 3 days.

The portal vein transports venous blood from the gastrointestinal tract directly to the:
liver

Peristalsis is defined as:
rhythmic contraction.

The exocrine function of the pancreas produces
enzymes

A patient with pancreatitis would MOST likely present with pain that:
goes straight through to the back in the midline of the lower thoracic area.

A 38-year-old man presents with an acute onset of severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain, pain to his right shoulder, and nausea. He is conscious and alert, but is restless from the pain. His blood pressure is 150/86 mm Hg, pulse rate is 120 beats/min and strong, and respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. In addition to administering supplemental oxygen, you should:
start an IV with normal saline and set it to keep the vein open, place him in a position of comfort, and administer 4 mg of morphine and 12.5 mg of promethazine.

Unlike peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis:
involves the circulation of blood through a machine.

The MOST important therapy the paramedic can administer to a patient with an isolated renal calculus is:
analgesia

Which of the following statements regarding postrenal acute renal failure (ARF) is correct?
Postrenal ARF is caused by obstruction of urine flow from the kidneys.

When the solute concentration of the blood increases:
antidiuretic hormone is released into the bloodstream.

You are caring for a 44-year-old woman who was sexually assaulted by several men. She is conscious but very quiet. Your partner, a female paramedic, quickly examines her and finds no immediate life-threatening injuries. The patient tells you that all she wants to do is go home and take a shower. After multiple attempts to convince the patient to consent to transport, you are unsuccessful. Your MOST appropriate action should be to:
ask the patient if there is a friend you can call with whom she can stay.

While caring for an unresponsive young woman who was apparently sexually assaulted, you note that her respirations are slow and shallow, her pulse is slow and weak, and her blood pressure is low. There is a small amount of dried blood on her thigh, but no grossly active bleeding. Immediate care for this patient involves:
maintaining her airway and providing ventilatory assistance.

Mittelschmerz is defined as:
unilateral abdominal pain and cramping that occur during the ovulatory process.

Which of the following conditions poses the LEAST risk for shock due to vaginal bleeding?
Dysmenorrhea

The lesions associated with genital herpes:
initially appear as small red bumps.

Which of the following is a potential complication of pelvic inflammatory disease?
Ectopic pregnancy

There is evidence that a 21-year-old woman was given Rohypnol before being raped. She presents with alcohol on her breath, drowsiness, and memory loss. Her blood pressure is 98/68 mm Hg, pulse is 58 beats/min and weak, and respirations are decreased and shallow. You attempt to administer high-flow oxygen, but she resists. What should you do now?
Consider administering naloxone in case she was also given a narcotic drug.

A ruptured ovarian cyst typically presents with:
a sudden onset of abdominal pain that can be related to the menstrual cycle.

Within a few days after having a therapeutic abortion, a 33-year-old woman presents with malaise, fever, constipation, and pelvic pain. Her blood pressure is 124/84 mm Hg, pulse rate is 104 beats/min and strong, and respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. You should be MOST suspicious for:
endometritis.

In the average female, the menstrual cycle lasts ___ days.
28

Which of the following would MOST likely cause Cushing syndrome?
Administration of large amounts of methylprednisolone to an asthma patient

The tissues of the central nervous system:
depend entirely on glucose as their source of energy.

You are dispatched to the residence of a 60-year-old woman who was found unresponsive by her husband. As you are assessing the patient, her husband tells you that she is a diabetic and has recently experienced several “small strokes.” In addition to properly managing her airway, you should:
perform a field glucose test to rule out hypoglycemia.

A 68-year-old obese woman presents with a markedly decreased level of consciousness. She was found in bed by her husband. Your primary assessment reveals that her respirations are slow and shallow, her pulse is slow and weak, and her skin is cold and dry. According to the patient’s husband, she has had a recent infection, but he cannot remember what the doctor called it. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient is experiencing:
myxedema coma.

Insulin resistance occurs when:
the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the body cannot utilize it effectively.

The release of glucagon into the bloodstream stimulates:
the liver to convert glycogen to glucose.

A 51-year-old man with type 2 diabetes presents with confusion, blurred vision, and signs of significant dehydration. According to the man’s wife, he has had a fever and flu-like symptoms for the past few days. She further tells you that he has “stuck to his diet” as advised by his physician. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg, pulse is 120 beats/min and weak, and respirations are rapid and shallow. You assess his blood glucose level, which reads “high.” This patient is MOST likely:
experiencing hyperosmolar nonketotic coma.

Patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma:
present with severe dehydration and neurologic deficits.

Unlike hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism:
causes an increase in oxygen demand.

You are assessing a 70-year-old man with a blood glucose reading of 400 mg/dL and note the presence of sharply peaked T waves on the cardiac monitor. Which of the following medications would this patient MOST likely receive in the prehospital setting?
Bicarbonate

Bile is stored in the _________ and is released into the __________, where it helps to _______.
gallbladder, duodenum, emulsify fats

Most of the digestive process occurs in the:
small intestine.

The exocrine function of the pancreas produces:
enzymes.

Pain over the suprapubic region is MOST suggestive of injury to the:
bladder.

Hypotension during an episode of dehydration indicates that the body is:
decompensating due to an excessive loss of blood as well as water and key electrolytes.

Common signs and symptoms of acute gastroenteritis include all of the following, EXCEPT:
chest pain.

Which of the following conditions would be the LEAST likely to result in peritonitis?
Splenic laceration

In contrast to a patient with peritonitis, a patient with hepatitis would MOST likely initially experience:
right upper quadrant pain.

The MOST likely cause of Crohn disease is:
autoantibody destruction of the intestinal wall.

Which of the following statements regarding Grey Turner sign is correct?
Grey Turner sign is characterized by flank bruising and indicates retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

Intestinal adhesions would MOST likely result in:
bowel obstruction.

Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition in which:
liver disease causes reduced brain function.

Which of the following statements regarding the renal system is correct?
The kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal space.

After the cells lining the proximal convoluted tubule remove all organic nutrients, plasma proteins, and ions from the filtrate, additional reabsorption of water and electrolytes occurs in the:
loop of Henle.

Aldosterone produces all of the following physiologic effects, EXCEPT:
retention of potassium ions in the body.

The micturition reflex:
produces the urge to void

Most urinary tract infections:
occur in women due to the relatively short urethra and its close proximity to the vagina and rectum.

The MOST important therapy the paramedic can administer to a patient with an isolated renal calculus is
analgesia

Acute renal failure is MOST accurately defined as:
a sudden decrease in filtration through the glomeruli.

Most cases of chronic renal failure are caused by:
systemic diseases such as diabetes.

A small, button-shaped device with a rubber septum that can be punctured with a dialysis needle is called a(n):
HemaSite.

All of the following conditions may cause urinary retention, EXCEPT:
testicular torsion.

Which of the following abdominal segments is anterior and is the most inferior?
Hypogastric region

ECG monitoring of a patient with a suspected urologic emergency is especially important because of:
the potential for electrolyte imbalances and their effect on the heart.

A young woman presents with left-sided flank pain, dysuria, and fever. She tells you that she has been experiencing pain and difficulty with urination for the past week, but did not see her physician. She called 9-1-1 when the flank pain and fever began. You should suspect:
pyelonephritis.

During normal menstruation, approximately ____ to ____ mL of blood is discharged from the vagina.
25, 65

Postmenopausal women:
are more susceptible to atherosclerosis and osteoporosis.

Which of the following medications would MOST likely be used in the prehospital setting to treat some women with severe premenstrual syndrome?
Glucose and fentanyl

The MOST common cause of amenorrhea is:
pregnancy.

Pelvic inflammatory disease commonly affects all of the following organs, EXCEPT the:
urinary bladder.

The Candida albicans fungus is the causative agent in:
vaginal yeast infections.

If a woman who is being treated with the antibiotic metronidazole for bacterial vaginosis consumes alcohol during treatment:
she may develop severe nausea and vomiting.

Which of the following questions is the MOST important to ask when obtaining a patient’s gynecologic history?
“When was your last menstrual period?”

A 25-year-old woman presents with acute abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. She tells you that she has soaked eight high-absorbency tampons in the past 2 hours. Approximately how much blood has she lost externally?
160 mL

You are caring for a young woman with constant, diffuse abdominal pain, referred pain to both shoulders, and vaginal bleeding. She states that her last menstrual period was 2 months ago, but she adamantly denies being pregnant. Her blood pressure is 86/50 mm Hg, pulse rate is 120 beats/min and weak, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and regular. Which of the following interventions is NOT appropriate for this patient?
Narcotic analgesia

You are dispatched to a residence for a 34-year-old woman who is “sick.” Upon your arrival, the patient greets you at the door. She tells you that she began experiencing a dull aching pain in the left lower quadrant of her abdomen. She further states that she recently had her menstrual period, which was accompanied by more pain than usual. Her vital signs are stable, she is conscious and alert, and she denies vaginal bleeding or fever. This patient MOST likely has:
a ruptured ovarian cyst.

Law enforcement request that you respond to a local apartment complex for a young woman who was sexually assaulted. When you arrive at the scene, you find the patient sitting on her couch, clearly upset. You see a small amount of blood on her shorts, near the groin area. What is your initial priority in the care of this patient?
Identifying and treating immediate life threats

If there is a physiologic level of antidiuretic hormone in the bloodstream, then:
the renal tubules are stimulated to reabsorb sodium and water.

Which of the following statements regarding insulin is correct?
Insulin is the only hormone that decreases blood glucose levels.

What is the function of estrogen?
It signals the anterior pituitary gland to secrete luteinizing hormone.

A person with type 1 diabetes:
generally does not produce any insulin and requires daily insulin injections.

Which of the following would NOT cause hypoglycemia in the patient with type 1 diabetes?
Strenuous exertion

An illness or infection would MOST likely cause:
a slow onset of hyperglycemia.

Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when:
the cells metabolize fat and produce ketones.

A patient with diabetic ketoacidosis experiences polydipsia as a result of:
dehydration.

Prehospital treatment for patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma focuses on:
airway management and fluid rehydration.

A decrease in adrenal hormone production will result in all of the following, EXCEPT:
hypertension

You receive a call to the county jail for a male inmate who is unresponsive. According to the jailor, the patient was arrested for being “drunk.” Your assessment reveals that the patient is profusely diaphoretic, and his respirations are rapid and shallow. His blood glucose level reads 30 mg/dL. As your partner assists the patient’s ventilations, you start an IV and administer 50% dextrose. Reassessment reveals that the patient is responsive to pain only and his blood glucose level is 46 mg/dL. You should:
administer a second dose of dextrose and prepare for immediate transport.

A 30-year-old woman presents with 3 days of generalized weakness, dizziness, and excessive urination. She is conscious but restless, and she tells you that she is extremely thirsty. Her blood pressure is 96/66 mm Hg, her pulse is 110 beats/min and full, and her respirations are increased and somewhat deep. On the basis of this patient’s clinical presentation, she will MOST likely require oxygen and:
crystalloid fluid hydration.

You are dispatched to a residence for a 33-year-old woman with excruciating pain to the right lower quadrant of her abdomen. She is conscious and alert and tells you that she has been experiencing pain to the same area for the past few days. Her blood pressure is 110/66 mm Hg, pulse rate is 118 beats/min and strong, and respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate depth. Her skin is warm and moist. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient involves:
oxygen via nonrebreathing mask, an IV of isotonic crystalloid set to keep the vein open, morphine or fentanyl, and prompt transport.

A 52-year-old man complains of vomiting and diarrhea for the past day. He is conscious and alert, has a blood pressure of 130/70 mm Hg, has a heart rate of 120 beats/min and strong, and has respirations of 20 breaths/min and regular. His past medical history is significant for anemia and congestive heart failure. Prior to administering isotonic crystalloid solutions to this patient, it is MOST important to:
auscultate his lung sounds.

You are caring for a middle-aged man with severe abdominal pain and dark, tarry stools. He is conscious but very restless. His blood pressure is 78/52 mm Hg, pulse rate is 130 beats/min and weak, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and shallow. Further assessment reveals that his skin is cool and clammy and his radial pulses are weakly present. You should:
administer high-flow oxygen, start two large-bore IV lines, and administer 20-mL/kg normal saline boluses until his radial pulses strengthen.

Definitive treatment for a patient with end-stage renal disease involves:
kidney transplant.

The glomerular filtration rate is defined as the:
amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys per minute.

Implantation of a fertilized egg within a fallopian tube:
can cause severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage.

A patient with Cushing syndrome would MOST likely present with:
hyperglycemia

Blood that has been digested by stomach acids manifests as:
coffee-ground emesis.

A 29-year-old man presents with bizarre behavior and profuse sweating. His wife tells you that he has type 1 diabetes and that he took his insulin today. During your assessment, you will MOST likely find that the patient is:
tachypneic

Which of the following statements regarding ectopic pregnancy is MOST correct?
In ectopic pregnancy, a fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the uterus.

An obese 52-year-old woman who presents with severe pain in the right upper quadrant of her abdomen and pain in her right shoulder is MOST likely experiencing:
cholecystitis

Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
Storage of bile

Chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs would MOST likely result in:
peptic ulcer disease.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include all of the following, EXCEPT:
dysuria

As the filtrate passes through the rest of the nephron, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion convert it to:
urine

The main filter for blood in the kidney is the:
glomerulus

A 70-year-old female dialysis patient presents with a headache. She is conscious and alert, has a blood pressure of 190/100 mm Hg, has a pulse rate of 90 beats/min and regular, and has respirations of 14 breaths/min and regular. In addition to administering supplemental oxygen, you should:
monitor her cardiac rhythm, transport, and start an IV line en route to the hospital.

Furosemide (Lasix) causes diuresis by:
inhibiting sodium reabsorption in the kidneys.

In contrast to somatic pain, visceral pain:
is difficult to localize

The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder connect to the digestive system at the:
duodenum

A patient with an advanced bowel obstruction would MOST likely present with:
a feculent breath odor.

End-stage renal disease occurs when:
the kidneys have lost all ability to function.

Icteric sclera and acholic stools are clinical manifestations of:
cirrhosis

In contrast to the male urethra, the female urethra:
is significantly shorter in length.

A 30-year-old woman presents with 3 days of generalized weakness, dizziness, and excessive urination. She is conscious but restless, and she tells you that she is extremely thirsty. Her blood pressure is 96/66 mm Hg, her pulse is 110 beats/min and full, and her respirations are increased and somewhat deep. On the basis of this patient’s clinical presentation, she will MOST likely require oxygen and
crystalloid fluid hydration.

An arteriovenous fistula is usually located in the:
forearm or upper arm.

A patient with orthostatic vital sign changes:
may faint upon standing

A protuberant abdomen would MOST likely be encountered in a patient with:
peritoneal fluid accumulation.

Esophageal varices are a direct result of:
portal hypertension.

When a woman presents with abdominal pain or other vague symptoms, the EMT is often unable to determine the nature of the problem until he or she: has gathered patient history information. When caring for a female patient who has …

When caring for a patient who takes numerous medications, it is best to: A. document the medications on your patient care report, but leave them at home so they do not get misplaced. B. take all of the patient’s medications …

An index of suspicion is MOST accurately defined as: Your awareness and concern for potentially serious underlying and unseen injuries or illness. A 33-year-old female presents with lower abdominal quadrant pain. She is conscious and alert, but in moderate pain. …

which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct? the brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen a 37 year old female with a history of diabetes presents with excessive urination and weakness of two days duration. her …

A 37-year-old male is found unconscious in his car. His airway is patent and his respirations are rapid and labored. As you and your partner are assessing and treating the patient, a police officer hands you a medication named Alupent, …

Q24 – You have been called by a family for their mother, who is “not acting right”. On scene you find the 69 year old woman to be confused and seemingly slow in talking. her airway is open and respirations …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy