Medical Assistant-Pharmacology

60 Drop, gtt
= 1 tsp

3 tsp
= 1 Tbs

2 Tbs
= 1 oz

8 oz
= 1 c

2 c
= 1 pt

2 pt
= 1 qt

4 qt
= 1 gal

1000mg
= 1g

1,000,000mcg=
1g

1000mcg
= 1mg

1000g
= 1kg

Deci
= 0.1

Centi
= 0.01

Milli
= 0.001

Micro
= 0.000001

Deka
= 10

Hecto
= 100

Kilo
= 1,000

Mega
= 1,000,000

104f = _____ c
104 – 32/ 1.8

28c = ______ f
28 * 1.8 + 32

8 dr
= 1 oz

60 minims
= 1 dr

16 oz
= 1 lb

PPE
Personal Protective Equipment

Charting
Date it, Time it, State it, Sign it

5 B’s
Be Legible, Be Accurate, Be Logical & Progressive, Be Brief & Concise, Be Timely

Bacteria
Cocci, Bacilli, Sprilla

Viruses
Influenza, Cold, Cancer, MMR

Inflammation
Body’s effort to get rid of anything that irritates

Inflammation symptoms
Heat, Redness, Swelling, Pain, Itching, Loss of function

Exam room
Clean, Warm, Comfortable

Lithotomy position
Feet in stirrups, buttocks close as possible to edge of table

Fowler’s position
Full- sitting 90 degrees legs out straight
Semi- sitting 45 degrees legs out straight

Sitting position
Sitting on edge of table legs hanging off edge

Supine position
Flat on back legs extended out

Prone position
Flat on stomach legs extended out

Dorsal recumbent position
Supine with knees bent soles of feet on edge of table

Sims position
Prone/side bottom arm behind, bottom leg slightly bent, top leg knee bent foot even with bottom knee

Knee-chest position
Prone, arms by head, on chest, up ok n knees with buttocks in air

Basic instrument categories
Cutting, directing; grasping, clamping; dilating, visualization; probe, explore or measure

TPR
Temp, Pulse, Respiratory

BP
Blood Pressure

Temperature
Maintained by the hypothalamus, located in the brain, allows variations of only 1-2 degrees

Normal body temp
97-99 degrees, 36.1-37.2 celcius

Average body temp
98.6 degrees, 37 celcius

Febrile
One who has fever

Afebrile
One who has NO fever

Malaise
Refers to a vague sense of the body discomfort, weakness, and fatigue

5 temperature locations
Oral, axilla, rectum, ear, forehead

Axillary temp
Under arm, armpit

Factors that affect Pulse rate
Age, Gender, Physical activity, Emotional state, Metabolism, Fever, Medications

Pulse sites
Radial, Apical, Brachial, Ulnar, Temporal, Carotid, Femoral, Popliteal, Posterior Tibial, Dorsalis Pedis

Pulse Oximetry
A painless and noninvasive procedure used to measure the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood.

7 methods to gather patient data:
LOOK inspection visual observation; LISTEN auscultation; FEEL palpation tips of fingers hands; MEASURE mensuration hgt wt bp; SMELL odors breath urine ect; ROM manipulation movement rotation of joint

Body temperature
There balance maintained by the body between heat loss and heat produced

Newborn temp
97-99 degrees

Elderly temp
Below 97 degrees

Factors affecting body temp
Age, environment, exercise, diumal variations ( lowest in morning), stress, body processes

Types of fever
Continuous, intermittent, and remittent

Continuous fever
Temperature fluctuates a little but stays elevated… Scarlett Fever, pneumoccal pneumonia

Intermittent fever
Temperature rises and falls, and returns to normal or subnormal.. Bacterial infections and viural infections

Remittent fever
Wide range of temperature flucuations occur, all above normal… Influenza, pneumonia, endocarditis

Oral temp
Mouth

Axilla temp
Approximately 1 degree lower than oral

Rectum temp
Extremely accurate, 1 degree higher than oral

Ear temp
Aural, easy to use

Forehead temp
1 degree higher than oral, 2 degrees higher than axilla

60mg
gr1

1g
gr15

15g
dr4 / 1tbs (3tsp)

30g
oz1 (dr8) / 1oz (2tbs)

1mL
15minims / 15gtt

4mL
dr1

15mL
dr4 / 1tbs (3tsp)

30mL
oz1 (dr8) / 1oz (2tbs)

500mL
oz10 (1pt) / 16oz

1000mL
oz32 (1qt) / 32oz

2.54cm
1in

1m
39.4in

10mm
1cm

117/80
mm Hg

systolic
When heart contracts, top number of blood pressure, measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats.

diastolic
Heart at rest, bottom number of blood pressure, measures the pressure in the arteries between heart beats

myopia
nearsighted

presbyopia
decrease in elasticity of the lens of the eye

20/20
top feet pt is at, bottom normal distance in feet that people see the chart.

what artery and location is the artery for blood pressure reading
brachial artery, inside of elbow

routine vital signs
temperature, pulse, respirations, blood presure

cardinal signs
temperature, pulse, respiration

axillary temp
1 degree below normal

glaucoma
leading cause of blindness

eyes normally dilate in
the dark

deflation of blood pressure cuff rate
2-3 mm Hg

Korotkoff sounds
5 phases

blood pressure is measured in
mm Hg

medication should be placed in the eye
conjunctival sac

before menopause
womens bp is 5-10 points lower than males

after menopause
womens bp is higher than males

benign hypertension
progresses very slowly with no symptoms

essential hypertension
hypertension with no known cause

malignant hypertension
progesses quickly

regularity or irregularity of pulses is called
rhythm

difference between pulse counts taken simultaneously at two sites, the radial and apical pulses is termed
pulse deficit

Blood pressure
The force exerted by the blood against artery walls

Artery
Pulse

Vein
No pulse

Equipment used for taking b/p
Stethoscope and sphygmomanometer

Stethoscope
Bell chest piece, smaller side, closed diaphragm, larger side

Sphygmomanometer
Blood pressure cuff with an aneroid gage

Aneroid gage
Needle should be straight down in middle of 0

How many mm Hgg per second should deflated
2-4

Factors that affect blood pressure
Age, sleep, weight, heredity, sex, viscosity of blood, emotions, and condition of heart

Indirect contact/airborne
Use surgical mask

Direct contact
Use gloves, gowns, shields

Droplet
Use mask, eye protection

1991
OSHA, bloodborne pathogen standards

1987
CDC, established standards and guidelines known as universal guidelines

All body fluids are considered
Potentially infected, so use gloves

OPIM
Other potentially infected material

Synovial fluid
Fluids in the joints

Pleural fluid
Fluid from the lungs

Pericardial fluid
Fluid from around the heart

Peritoneal fluid
Fluid from the abdomen, pelvic cavity

Hep B
Will live 7 days on a surface

HIV
Will only live a couple of hours on a surface

Snellen eye chart
Consists of letters decreasing in sizes

Snellen big E chart
Consists of the capital E. Decreasing in size and different directions

Ishihara color test
Tests for color blindness

Jaeger near visual acuity cards
To test near vision

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