Med Terms – Chapter 15

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Which structure supports and connects the cells of the nervous system?
Neuroglia

Which protective mechanism blocks chemicals from entering brain tissue?
Blood-brain barrier

The anterior root of the spinal cord is composed of:
motor fibers

The unmyelinated spaces between adjacent segments of myelin sheath are called:
Nodes of Ranvier

Which structure is located outside the cranium?
Anterior root

Fight-or-flight situations are dominated by the:
sympathetic nervous system

Nerves that conduct impulses toward the brain or spinal cord are called:
Afferent

Chemicals that facilitate movement of impulses at synapses are called:
neurotransmitters

Which structure joins the two hemispheres of the brain?
Corpus callosum

All functions of the cerebellum are concerned with:
Movement

The central nervous system is composed of the:
brain and spinal cord

The small space between neurons is called the:
synapse

The protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord are called the:
meninges

Which neuroglial cell possesses phagocytic properties?
Microglia

The thalamus is a structure of the:
diencephalon

The combining form (CF) lex/o means:
word, phrase

The CF mening/o means:
meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)

The CF myel/o means:
bone marrow, spinal cord

The CF cerebr/o means:
cerebrum

The CF gli/o means
glue; neuroglial tissue

The CF ton/o means:
tension

The CF thec/o means:
sheath (referring to the meninges)

The suffix -esthesia means:
feeling

The suffix -kinesia means:
movement

The suffix -lepsy means:
seizure

The suffix -plegia means:
paralysis

The suffix -asthenia means:
weakness, debility

The prefix para- means:
near, beside, beyond

The prefix syn- means:
union, together, joined

The prefix uni- means:
one

An injury resulting from impact with an object is called:
concussion

Chronic, recurring seizures are called:
epilepsies

Which mental disorder is characterized by extreme withdrawal and abnormal absorption in fantasy?
Autism

Which life-threatening emergency involves the whole cortex?
Status epilepticus

Which acute infectious disease in adults is caused by the same organism responsible for chicken pox in children?
Herpes zoster

The term pachymeningitis refers to inflammation of the:
dura mater only

An abnormal activity or a lack of response to normal stimuli is called:
lethargy

Brain lesions associated with Alzheimer disease are called:
plaques

Another term for stroke is:
cerbrovascular accident

The term syncope means:
fainting

Which cognitive deficit includes memory impairment?
Dementia

Inflammation of a nerve root associated with the spinal column is called:
radiculopathy

The results of a stroke would most likely affect:
either the left or right side of the body

Which disorder is associated with demyelination?
Multiple sclerosis

Pain in one part of the body resulting from injury in another part is called:
Synalgia

Poor muscle coordination, especially with voluntary movements, is called:
ataxia

A sudden, uncontrollable urge to sleep at an inappropriate time is called:
narcolepsy

A difficulty with reading or an inability to read is called:
dyslexia

Pain radiating down the leg due to nerve compression is called:
Sciatica

Which sensory phenomenon acts as a warning signal of an imminent seizure?
Aura

Which mental disorder is characterized by unusual shifts in mood, emotion, energy, and the ability to function?
Bipolar disorder

Swelling of the optic disc due to increased intracranial pressure is called:
Papilledema

A sudden and violent contraction of one or more voluntary muscles is called a(n):
convulsion

An inherited disease of the CNS with involuntary movements, speech disturbances, and mental deterioration is called:
Huntington chorea

The most severe form of spina bifida, in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine, is called:
myelomeningocele

Which imaging technique produces colors to indicate the degree of metabolism or blood flow in the brain?
Positron emission tomography

A circular opening cut into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure is called a:
trephination

Which medical procedure records electrical activity of the brain?
Electroencephalography

Which test measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve?
nerve conduction velocity

Which technique destroys tissue using extreme cold?
Cryosurgery

A surgical treatment for intractable pain, involuntary movements, tremors, or emotional disturbances is called:
thalamotomy

Which diagnostic procedure produces high-resolution, three-dimensional vascular images of blood vessels?
Computed tomography angiography

Which diagnostic procedure is used to pinpoint the specific location where seizures originate?
Magnetic source imaging

Which imaging procedure uses radiopharmaceuticals to diagnose such disorders as schizophrenia, brain tumors, and epilepsy?
Positron emission tomography

Which surgical treatment relieves pressure on a nerve root?
Decompression

Which procedure involves needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes?
Lumbar puncture

An incision of the cranium to gain access to the brain during neurosurgical procedures is called a:
Craniotomy

Which procedure involves destruction of nervous tissue?
Neurolysis

Removal of a ganglion is called:
gangliectomy

Which procedure involves measurement of the dimensions of the brain?
Enecephalometry

Which procedure is a surgical repair of the skull?
Cranioplasty

Destruction of a blood clot is called:
thrombolysis

Which diagnostic procedure locates and destroys lesions in deep-seated structures of the body?
Stereotaxic radiosurgery

Computed tomography scan of the lumbar region to detect problems with the spine and spinal roots is called:
discography

What is the diagnostic test that examines a sample of fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord?
Cerebrospinal fluid analysis

Which classification of drugs depresses central nervous system functions, promotes sedation and sleep, and relieves restlessness?
Hypnotics

Which classification of drugs treats multiple symptoms of depression by increasing levels of specific neurotransmitters?
Antidepressants

Which classification of drugs controls tremors and muscle rigidity by increasing dopamine in the brain?
Antiparkinsonian agents

Which classification of drugs acts upon the brain to produce a complete loss of feeling and consciousness?
General anesthetics

Which classification of drugs includes general, local, and nerve blocks?
Anesthetics

Which abbreviation refers to stroke symptoms that resolve within 24 hours?
TIA

Which abbreviation refers to a state of unconsciousness?
LOC

Which abbreviation refers to a recording of electrical activity in the brain to help locate seizure activity?
EEG

Which abbreviation refers to a type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and sometimes speech and learning ability?
CP

Which abbreviation refers to the fluid found in the ventricles and within the meninges of the brain and spinal cord?
CSF

Paresis is partial or incomplete paralysis.
True

Most intracranial tumors originate directly in brain tissue.
True

Another term for fainting is syncope.
True

Intracranial pressure commonly causes papilledema.
True

Demyelination throughout the spinal cord and brain is characteristic of MS.
True

Nodding of the head, slowness of movement, tremors, stiffness of large joints, and shuffling gait are associated with brain tumors.
False

Alzheimer disease has been identified as a leading cause of senile dementia.
True

Spontaneous recovery from Bell palsy can be expected in about 3 to 6 weeks.
True

Multiple sclerosis is most commonly associated with the elderly, especially those older than 70 years.
False

Cutting of a circular opening in the skull is a trephination.
True

Ventriculoperitoneal shunting relieves intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus.
True

Tractotomies are performed in the cerebrum.
False

Lumbar puncture is also called spinal puncture or spinal tap.
True

Stereotaxic radiosurgery is performed though an incision of the skull.
False

Nerve conduction velocity is the definitive test for epilepsies.
False

Levodopa is used in the treatment of Parkinson disease.
True

A local anesthetic induces loss of consciousness.
False

Nerve blocks are used for procedures on the arms, legs, hands, feet, and face.
True

Stroke is also known as CVA.
True

Brain plaques are associated with AD.
True

mening/o
meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)

narc/o
stupor; numbness; sleep

cerebr/o
cerebrum

ton/o
tension

thalam/o
thalamus

sthen/o
strength

myel/o
bone marrow; spinal cord

crani/o
cranium (skull)

encephal/o
brain

kinesi/o
movement

lept/o
thin, slender

lex/o
word, phrase

gangli/o
ganglion (knot or knotlike mass)

neur/o
nerve

radicul/o
nerve root

ventricul/o
ventricle (of the heart or brain)

thec/o
sheath (usually refers to the meninges)

gli/o
glue; neuroglial tissue

transection of a nerve tract in the brain stem or spinal cord
tractotomy

any cognitive deficit, including memory impairment
dementia

use of extreme cold to destroy tissue
cryosurgery

weakness in one-half of the body
hemipariesis

eating disorder characterized by binging and purging
bulimia

acute inflammatory eruption of vesicles, usually on trunk; also called shingles
herpes zoster

inability to learn or process written language despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability, and exposure
dyslexia

sudden, violent contraction of one or more voluntary muscles
convulsion

brain injury due to trauma to the head
concussion

lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement
ataxia

weakness, debility, or loss of strength
asthenia

swelling of the optic disc in back of eyeball
papilledema

mental disorder in which there is severe loss of contact with reality as evidenced by delusions
psychosis

mental disorder characterized by irrational fears
phobia

small lesions on the brain associated with Alzheimer disease
plaques

loss of the white lipoid covering that acts as an “electrical insulator”
demyelination

protective mechanism that blocks specific substances from entering the brain from the blood
blood-brain barrier

chronic or recurring seizure disorders
epilepsies

warning signal of an imminent seizure
aura

abnormally deep unconsciousness with absence of voluntary response to stimuli
coma

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain causing increased intracranial pressure
hydrocephalus

abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli
lethargy

failure of the fetal brain to develop
anencephaly

facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve
Bells palsy

sensation of numbness, prickling, tingling, or heightened sensitivity
paresthesia

brief loss of consciousness; also called fainting
syncope

Use ventricul/o to build a word that means inflammation of the ventricles: ____________________.
ventriculitis

Use mening/o to build a word that means hernia or swelling of the meninges: ____________________.
meningocele

Use meningi/o to build a word that means tumor of the meninges: ____________________.
meningioma

Use myel/o to build a word that means disease of the spinal cord: ____________________.
myelopathy

Use narc/o to build a word that means seizure of sleep: ____________________.
narcolepsy

Use encephal/o to build a word that means inflammation of the brain: ____________________.
encephalitis

Use -phasia to build a word that means bad, difficult speech: ____________________.
dysphasia

Use -esthesia to build a word that means without feeling or not feeling: ____________________.
anesthesia

Use quadri- to build a word that means paralysis of four (extremities): ____________________.
quadriplegia

Use uni- to build a word that means pertaining to the side or to one side: ____________________.
unilateral

Use -asthenia to build a word that means weakness or debility of a muscle: ____________________.
myasthenia

Use -esthesia to build a word that means feeling that is excessive or above normal: ____________________.
hyperesthesia

Use -kinesia to build a word that means movement that is bad, painful, or difficult: ____________________.
dyskinesia

Build a word that means inflammation of the nerve root: ____________________.
radiculitis

Build a word that means instrument to measure the cranium (skull): ____________________.
craniometer

Build a word that means condition of slow movement: ____________________.
bradykinesia

Build a word that means inflammation of gray (matter) of the spinal cord: ____________________.
poliomyelitis

Build a word that means excision of a nerve root: ____________________.
radiculectomy

Build a word that means pertaining to stupor; numbness; sleep: ____________________.
narcotic

Build a word that means record (x-ray) of the brain: ____________________.
encephalogram

Build a word that means excision of a ganglion: ____________________.
gangliectomy

Build a word that means tumor of neuroglial tissue: ____________________.
glioma

Build a medical word that means speech that is rapid: ____________________.
tachyphasia

Build a medical word that means softening of the cranium (skull): ____________________.
craniomalacia

Build a medical word that means separation; destruction; loosening of a nerve: ____________________.
neurolysis

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy What is the normal position of the uterus? Anteflexion The internal female reproductive organs include the: Uterus WE WILL …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy *Alzheimer disease cronic progressive demetian caused by the atrophy of the brain tissue amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) degenerative neuromuclar …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy What are the 3 functions of the nervous system? sensory input integration motor output What are the 2 divisions …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Blood-brain barrier Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter brain tissue and keep others out. Astrocyte Type …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy meninges Protective connective tissue covering that encircles the spinal cord and brain? the vertebral foramina; housed is the spinal …

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