Med term chapter 10 study guide

Blood-brain barrier
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter brain tissue and keep others out.

Astrocyte
Type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.

Cauda equina
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.

Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.

Axon
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.

Afferent nerve
Carries messages toward the Brain and spinal cord from receptors.

Brainstem
Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.

Cell body
Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.

Arachnoid membrane
Middle layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Autonomic nervous system
Contains nerves that control involuntary body functions or muscles, glands, and internal organs.

Efferent nerve
Motor nerve that carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord.

Cerebrum
Largest part of the brain.

Central nervous system (CNS)
Includes the brain and spinal cord.

Dendrite
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first to receive a nervous impulse.

Cerebellum
Posterior part of the brain; coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.

Ependymal cell
Glial (neuroglial) cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord; helps form cerebrospinal fluid.

Cerebral cortex
Outer region of the cerebrum; contains sheets of nerves.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.

Dura mater
Thick, outermost layer of the meninges.

Cranial nerves
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain.

Hypothalamus
Portion of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.

Myelin sheath
White, fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell.

Glial cell
Supportive and connective type of nerve cell; does not carry nervous impulses.

Meninges
Membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Gyrus
Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the brain.

Neuron
Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body.

Ganglion
Collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS (peripheral nervous system).

Medulla oblongata
Portion of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels.

Motor nerve
Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; efferent nerve.

Nerve
Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers that carry electrical impulse.

Pons
Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and rest of the midbrain.

Neurotransmitter
Chemical messenger, released at the end of a nerve cell.

Parenchyma
Essential, distinguishing tissue of an organ or system.

Pia mater
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.

Receptor
Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to afferent nerves.

Microglial cell
Phagocytic glial cell.

Plexus (plexuses: plural)
Large, interlacing network of nerves.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord including cranial and spinal nerves.

Parasympathetic nerves
Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and gastrointestinal muscles.

Oligodendroglial cell
Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons.

Sulcus
Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex.

Stroma
Connective and supporting tissue of an organ; glial cells of the brain.

Vagus nerve
Tenth cranial nerve.

Sensory nerve
Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord; afferent nerve.

Thalamus
Main relay center of the brain.

Sympathetic nerves
Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.

Sciatic nerve
Spinal nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot.

Stimulus
Agent of change (light, sound, touch) that evokes a response.

Synapse
Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells.

Ventricles of the brain
Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.

Encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain.

Subdural hematoma
Collection of blood located below the dura mater.

Cerebellar
Pertaining to the cerebellum.

Cerebral cortex (2)
Pertaining to the outer section of the cerebrum.

Epidural hematoma
Collection of blood located above the dura mater.

Encephalopathy
Disease of the brain.

Anencephaly
Congenital absence of a brain

Leptomeningeal
Pertaining to the pia and arachnoid membrane.

Meningoma
Tumor of the membranes around the brain and spinal cord.

Myelogram
X-ray record of the spinal cord.

Neuropathy
Disease of nerves.

Glioblastoma
Malignant tumor of immature glial cells.

Myoneural
Pertaining to muscles and nerves.

Myelomengingicele
Hernia of the spinal cord and meninges.

Polyneuritis
Inflammation of many nerves.

Radiculitis
Inflammation of a nerve root.

Poliomyelitis
Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord.

Pontine
Pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons.

Radiculopathy
Disease of a nerve root.

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cauda equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord ventricles of the brain Canals in the interior of the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Acetylcholine neurotransmitter chemical releases at the ends of the nerve cells. Afferent nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves). Afferent comes from af-a form of ad-, meaning toward and-fernt meaning carrying WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

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The peripheral nervous system comprises of all nerves located outside the brain and the spinal cord. The system comprises of sense organs that are used to detect stimuli from inside and outside the body. There are also some special sense …

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