Med Surg Pneumonia Lower Respiratory Tract Disorders Pneumonia

What is pneumonia
Inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli accompanied by consolidation or solidification of of exudate in the lungs

What are some of the risk factors for developing pneumonia?
Immobility, depressed cough reflex, CVA, alterations in respiratory function, advanced age, and chronic debilitating conditions.

What is usually the presenting complaint of a patient with pneumonia? How might this differ in the elderly?
Usually a high fever of sudden onset. In the elderly, they may be seriously ill, but only display a low fever.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa are all common examples of *** that cause pneumonia
bacteria

Those taking an immunosuppressant,, or who are affected by HIV may be infected by what?
Cytomegalovirus: a common cause of viral pneumonia

What is chemical pneumonia caused by?
Entry of irritating substances into the pulmonary passageways.

What is a common source of chemical pneumonia?
Aspiration of gastric secretions

What happens to the WBC count in bacterial pneumonia?
It elevates, sometimes as high as 40,000/mm^3

What happens to WBC count in pneumonia caused by viruses or mycoplasms?
It may be lowered, or it may be normal

What is the difference in between the expected chest x-ray in a patient with bacterial pneumonia vs. one with viral or chemical p. ?
The chest x-ray for bacterial will show isolated areas of consolidation, whereas chemical or viral will appear as more diffuse areas of consolidation

What diagnostic tests would you expect to see for pneumonia?
Chest x-ray, ABGs, PFTs, Pulse Oximetry, and C&S.

Before the results of a C&S have been obtained, but after a sputum culture has been sent off, what pharmacological intervention might the physician implement?
May start therapy with a broad-spectrum antibiotic until results return.

acyclovir sodium (Zovirax) is an example of what type of medication? What is it used for?
An anitviral medication. It’s used for viral pneumonia.

In the case of viral pneumonia, why might prophylactic antibiotic therapy be started?
To prevent secondary bacterial infection

When should activities promoting coughing be avoided in patients with pneumonia?
Immediately before and after meals.

Cough suppressants and pain relievers may be administered when cough is causing severe complaints such as a headache. Why should they be administered with discretion?
Because they may further inhibit clients ability to clear airways.

What is commonly ordered to help a patient mobilize secretions?
Postural drainage, nebulizer or aerosol treatments, TCDB and incentive spirometry.

When would a physician perform a bronchoscopy on a pneumonia patient?
When secretions are overwhelming and must be removed.

What is indicated if a patient is unable to mobilize secretions?
suctioning

In order to prevent compression of the lungs *** *** meals are preferred.
Small, frequent

Unless contraindicated, what should a nurse encourage for a patient with pneumonia to do in order to liquify secretions?
Drink plenty of fluids

To promote optimal tissue oxygenation, what activity level is recommended?
Bed Rest or limited activity with ROM exercises and progressive ambulation to limit affects of immobility.

TYPES OF PNEUMONIA
bacterial, viral and aspiration (chemical)

What lobes of the lungs are affected with aspiration or (chemical) pneumonia?
right middle and lower lobes are affected most in chemical (aspiration) bc of the anatomy of the right bronchus and the effects of gravity

TREATMENT (S) FOR PNEUMONIA
antibiotics, antipyretic, prophylatic antibiotics bronchodilators, nebulizor, supp O2, incentive spirometer

WHAT IS CHEMICAL PNEUMONIA and WHAT IS IT CAUSED BY
Irritating substances into the pulmonary passageways caused by aspiration of gastric secretions or inhalation of irritating substances

EXTRINSIC ASTHMA

INTRINSIC ASTHMA

extrinsic asthma: due to allergies
Asthma that is caused by substances outside the body, such as pollen, dust, food additives.

intrinsic asthma: non allergenic: follows respiratory tract infection exposure to cold air, humidity changes or respiratory irratants

In the case of viral pneumonia, why might prophylactic antibiotic therapy be started?
To prevent secondary bacterial infection

When should activities promoting coughing be avoided in patients with pneumonia?
Immediately before and after meals.

Patients taking an immunosuppressants, or who are affected by HIV may be infected by what?
Cytomegalovirus: a common cause of viral pneumonia

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What are some possible causes of pneumonia? Viral Bacterial ie: Aspiration Fungal What is pneumonia? inflammation of the lung – This term is usually only used to describe inflammation caused by infectious agents (viral, bacterial, fungal). WE WILL WRITE A …

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Influenza droplet, contact, inhalation incubation period 1-4 days Cough, fever, myalgia, HA, sore throat most common complication–> Pneumonia with worsening cough/purulent sputum tracheostomy surgically created stoma (opening) used to: -Bypass obstruction -Facilitate secretion removal -Permit long-term mechanical ventilation WE WILL …

What is pneumonia? It can be one of three things, what are they? Inflammation of the parenchyma (membrane) of the lungs 1) bacterial, viral or mycoplasmal 2. Inhalation of toxic or caustics chemicals, smoke, dust or gases 3) aspiration of …

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