Hippocrates (Father of Medicine)- he stated that diseases have natural causes and the has the power to repair itself. Aristotle (Greatest Ancient Scientist)- excelled in making observations made the most significant biological contributions. Galen (Greatest Biologist of Antiquity)- to study human anatomy and carried with the first physiological experiment in animals. 3. Renaissance 14th-6th Century Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo- made accurate studies in plants, animals, and human anatomy. Andreas Vesalius- published his book “The Structure of Human Body”.
William Harvey- described blood circulation in man, which contributed to physiology. Anton Van Leeuwenhock (Father of Microbiology)- Modern Biology Robert Hooke- discovered cell by observing tiny compartments from a thin slice of cork from a tree bark. Matthias Schleiden (Botanist) and Theodore Schwann (Zoologist)- claimed that all animal and all plants are made up of cells. Rudolf Virchow- Eventually established the concept of the cell theory. Francesco Redi- disapproved the Spontaneous Generation Theory. -Biogenesis.
Carolus Linnaeus/Carl Von Linnae (Father of Taxonomy)- established the system of nomenclature in which all living things are arranged by genera and species. Jean Baptise Lamarck- proposed the theory of evolution. Charles Darwin (Father of Evolution)- who proposed the natural selection as an explanation by which evolutionary changes takes place. Louise Pasteur (Father of Modern Biology)- introduced the pasteurization process and discovered anti rabies vaccines. Karl Von Baer- founded comparative embryology. Gregor Mendel- made studied on Genetics.
Hugo de Vries- formulated the “Mutation Theory”. Ernest H. Starling- hormones. Branches of Biology Anatomy- study of internal structures of living things. Bacteriology- study of bacteria. Botany- study of plants. Biochemistry- the use of chemistry in the study of living things. Biological Earth Sciences- the use of sciences, such as geography in the study of living things. Biological Psychology- is the use of biology in psychological studies. Biogeography- study of geographical distribution of living things. * Cytology- study of the ultra structure of the cell.
Phytopathology- study of diseases in plants. Taxonomy- the classification and naming of living things. * Virology- study of viruses. Zoology- study of animals. Zoogeography- study of distribution of animals on earth. Scientific Method- scientific way in solving problem. Question- have made careful observations in an attempt to answer them, they must do something with their data. Hypothesis- must be tested continually and changed frequently as new facts are discovered . Experiment- is a procedure designed to discuss which factors in a given situation.
Theory- repeatedly verified and appears to have a wide application in biology may assume that status of biological principle. Principle- is a statement that applies with a high degree of probability, to a range of events. Basic and Applied Research Basic Research- includes those investigations that are not directed at immediate practical applications. Applied Research- is directed toward the solution of a problem that is of immediate concern to someone or, in some case, toward applying new scientific discovery to practical uses. CHAPTER 2 2. 1The Characteristics of Life
A. Living Things Are Organized Cell- is the smallest and most basic unit of life. Unicellular- made up of single cell. Multicellular- made up of many types of cell. Tissues- composed of cells. Organs- composed of tissues. Organ System- composed of organs. Organism- the different organ systems work together. B. Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy Metabolism-the chemical process of getting energy from nutrient molecules of food and using it to maintain the structure and function of a cell. Anabolism- is called as the constructive or building up phase.
Catabolism-is the destructive or breaking down phase. C. Homeostasis – is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. D. Living Things Reproduce, Grow, and Develop Reproduction- the ability to produce offspring are two vital signs of life. Asexual Reproduction- only one single parent is needed. Sexual Reproduction- requires two parents. Growth- the process of enlargement and conversion of simple building materials into typical structural parts.