1. Non-small cell lung cancer is the more common of the two types of lung cancer. It generally grows and spreads slowly. There are five types of non-small cell lung cancer. Each type has different kinds of cancer cells. Each of the types grows and spreads in different ways. ? Causes of Lung Cancer The main cause of lung cancer is smoking tobacco (most often through cigarettes). Between 80% and 90% of lung cancers are due to smoking. People who are affected by Second-Hand smoking also have a higher chance of developing lung cancer. Some other factors which could cause lung cancer are: ?
Symptoms of lung cancer Although most lung cancers don’t cause symptoms until they have spread, there are several warning signs which you must report to your doctor, as they could be caused by lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales. Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in cells that have glandular properties. Large cell carcinoma: Cancer in which the cells are large and look abnormal. Adenosquamous carcinoma: Cancer that begins in cells that look flattened when viewed under a microscope.
Undifferentiated carcinoma: Cancer cells that do not look like normal cells and multiply uncontrollably. ? What is lung cancer? Lung cancer is the accumulation and uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung. This wild reproduction forms tumours that clog up the lung and stop it from functioning properly. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for both men and women in Canada. ? Exposure to substances such as Asbestos and Arsenic Drinking water high in substances such as arsenic, chromium and nickel. Exposure to Radon gas Genetics. 1. 7% of lung cancers are hereditary.
Air pollution ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Common signs of lung cancer: ? ? A cough which doesn’t go away and/or gets worse over time Constant chest pain Coughing up blood Shortness of breath Swelling of neck and face Weight loss Fatigue 2. Small cell lung cancer is the less common type of lung cancer. It grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other organs than non-small cell lung cancer. The three types of small cell lung cancer are ? ? ? Small cell carcinoma Mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma Combined small cell carcinoma Lung cancer diagnosis.
Once lung cancer begins to cause symptoms, it is usually visible on an Xray. Sometimes, a CT scan of the chest is ordered for a more detailed exam. Diagnosis of lung cancer is usually confirmed through a lung biopsy. If the biopsy confirms lung cancer, other tests will be performed to determine the type of cancer and how far it has spread. Treatment of lung cancer Surgery This is one of the most common treatments for lung cancer. Surgery for lung cancer branches out into three main categories: 1. 2. Pneumonectomy – the whole lung with the most cancerous cells is removed.
Lobectomy – the lobe containing the tumour is removed. This is the most common type of lung cancer surgery. Wedge Resection – the tumour and a small part of the lung is removed Prevention of lung cancer Although there is no guarantee that one will not develop lung cancer (since it could be unavoidably genetically inherited), there are many ways in which one can reduce their chances of developing lung cancer. Since 80% to 90% of lung cancers are caused by smoking, the best way to prevent developing this disease is by not smoking. Avoid being in environments in which one would be exposed to smoke or heavy air pollution.
In other words, avoid second-hand smoking. This is the most effective way to prevent lung cancer. Also, reducing the exposure to harmful substances (such as arsenic, asbestos and argon) since this will increase the risk of developing lung cancer. This can be done by checking your home for radon gas. A healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and exercise is recommended if one wants to minimize their risk of lung cancer, since there is no medical way to prevent lung cancer from developing More Information Lung Cancer Canada was founded in 2002 by Dr.
Yee Ung, a radiation oncologist who lost his wife to lung cancer. Their mission is to increase awareness about lung cancer, support patients living with lung cancer and provide educational resources to lung cancer patients and their family members. 3. Radiation Therapy The use of high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. This can be done through a machine or through a small pellet implanted near the tumour. Chemotherapy A doctor examining a chest X-ray. Glossary Hereditary – passing, or capable of passing, naturally from parent to kids through genes.
Tumour – an uncontrolled, abnormal growth of cells in any animal or plant tissue. Radon – a chemically inert, radioactive gaseous element produced by the decay of radium: emissions produced by out gassing of rock, brick etc. are a health hazard. New technologies Researchers are constantly looking for new ways to prevent, diagnose and treat lung cancer. One of the new ways researchers diagnose lung cancer is through tests which recognize the DNA changes that happen when a person develops lung cancer, allowing treatment to begin early and increasing the chances for survival.
Ingestion or injection of anti cancer drugs, which interfere with the growth and spreading of cancer cells in the lung. More Information The Canadian Lung Association works to improve and promote lung health by providing reliable and trusted information both citizens and the government about preventing many lung diseases. Asbestos – a fibrous mineral, either amphibole or chrysotile, formerly used for making incombustible or fireproof articles. Radiation – the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves.