Introduction Lung cancer is one of the various forms of cancers and like all can be very serious. This particular cancer begins in the lungs and can be retried several different ways. Your lungs can be located in the chest, and they play a very intricate part in the breathing system. You breathe air in through your nose, and there the air goes down your trachea into the lungs. Once the air has been transferred and it reached the lungs, it is then dispersed through tubing referred to as bronchi.
It is very common that the origination of this deathly disease happens here in the cells that line this tubing. This disease is so complex that it is broken up and categorized into two main types, non-small cell lung cancer, which is the more common of the two types and small cell lung cancer, which is 20% of all lung cancer cases. There is a possibility that a person can have both types, in this case the type is considered mixed small cell/ large cell cancer. Lung cancer does not have to derive in the lungs, it can start off in other parts of the body and spread to the lungs.
When this happens the type of cancer is known as metastatic cancer to the lung. Lung cancer, out of all the various types of cancer, is the deadliest and most harmful to both women and men. Yearly it is documented that this type of cancer reaps the lives of men and women more so than that of colon, prostate and breast. (ncbi. nlm. nih. gov) Lung cancer is capable, like any other cancer, of spreading to other parts of the body. It is most commonly known to spread to the brain, bones, adrenal glands and liver.
Spreading to these parts of the body can be done using any of three mechanisms: direct extension, permissible through the blood vessels, or by the lymph system. In addition to lung cancer being the most common type of cancer it is also often tough to treat. Even though this disease is the most common and difficult to cure and treat it amazingly can be prevented. The way you live your life can greatly compliment the contraction of the disease. If you were to evaluate your living style and change your bad habits, those being poor eating and the most familiar smoking, you can significantly diminish your risk.
(mentalhelp. net) Causes Smoking of course is a general factor for receiving lung cancer but also being around people that smoke puts you in the position of receiving second hand smoke, which can be just as bad as smoking directly. Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens, cancer causing chemicals, which cause lung cancer. It is said that 90% of lung cancer diagnosed in men and 80% of lung cancer diagnosed in women can be associated to the smoke of tobacco. Many people may say that marijuana smoke is safer than tobacco smoke and that you can’t contract lung cancer however this is not true.
Truthfully marijuana smoke has many of the same carcinogens that can be found in the smoke of tobacco products and similarly like the tobacco products this smoke can cause lung cancer as well. Some people may use a bong ( water- cooled pipe) to smoke through but this is no exception and offers no substantial protection from receiving the carcinogens that cause the cancer. To reduce your risk of receiving this disease, effectively discontinue all types of substances including marijuana. Radon exposure is another constituent of lung cancer. Radon is a radioactive gas that is present and extracted through rocks, soil, and building material.
Radon exposure has been documented to increase a person risk of getting lung cancer because of the gas’ ability to seep into homes and workplaces. This gas is regularly tested for in homes so people aren’t at a great risk at this time of getting lung cancer. However, the risk is high in some occupations such as working in a mine. It is especially vital that all workers take caution and wear all protective covering provided to aid in the protection of your lungs. Asbestos also is a contributing factor of lung cancer. Asbestos is a fibrous mineral that once upon a time was used in the making of building insulation.
The product became banned when it was researched that the asbestos fibers were carcinogens when inhaled into the body. Although there are some building that still house this type of insulation it is not harmful as long as it is not exposed into the air. Sealing carefully over the insulation containing asbestos fiber will provide protection to those who still live or work under the use of this item. People who have once upon a time had lung cancer or any type of respiratory problem but have recovered from the disease or no longer have complications are at greater risk of obtaining the disease again than someone who has not had the disease.
Such respiratory complications are tuberculosis and chronic obstructive, pulmonary disease. It also said that lung cancer is also influenced by genetic, sex and race. People with blood relatives that have had lung cancer are at a higher risk to have the disease too. Documentation reveals to us that African American males are at a higher risk of developing lung cancer than that of Caucasian males. (mentalhelp. net) Symptoms The symptoms for diagnosing lung cancer vary due to the location and how widespread the tumor is. Signs and symptoms are not always prevalent and easy to locate when it comes to lung cancer.
When the cancer begins to grow and spread, and the invasion of lung tissues and surrounding tissue began to affect the breathing this may lead to coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain, and coughing up blood. These are all visible and physical signs that will let you know to go get checked out by a physician. If the cancer has invaded the nerves the patient may very well feel symptoms such as shoulder pain that will travel down the outside of the arm, this is referred to as Pancoast’s syndrome. Paralysis of the vocal cords may also be done by lung cancer and this will result in hoarseness.
Lung cancer can invade the esophagus causing difficulty swallowing and also if the lung cancer is able to destroy a large airway there is a possibility that a portion of the lung can collapse causing infection to set in. Lung cancer that has been able to escape the lung and move to the bones and joints can cause excruciating pain at the slightest bone involvement. Lung cancer can also affect the brain and in doing so can cause major neurologic problems there like blurred vision, headaches, seizures, or symptoms of stroke like weakness and the loss of feeling in parts of your body.
There also are general nonspecific symptoms that a person can look out for, those being weakness, weight loss, and fatigue. Psychological problems can also become present with those being depression and mood changes. Diagnosis To determine and diagnose a patient with lung cancer doctors use a wide variety of diagnostic test and procedures. These events are but not limited to physical examination where the doctor can reflect back on the history of the patient and perform normal routine actions. It is in doing this that the doctor may discover symptoms that would play a part in the diagnosis such as difficulty breathing, airway obstruction, or lung infection.
Cyanosis is a bluish color of the skin and the mucous membrane due to insufficient oxygen in the blood, his factor will be present in those that are afflicted with chronic lung disease. Doctors can also perform chest X-rays which is the most common diagnostic procedure when symptoms surface. CT scan may also be performed on the chest, abdomen, and brain for the detection of metastatic and lung tumors. A low-dose helical CT scan is a procedure also used in screening for lung cancer.
This type of procedure requires a different type of CT scan and is best used to identify small lung cancer tumors present in smokers and non-smokers. Magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, bone scans, sputum cytology, bronchoscopy, and needle biopsy are just some other diagnostic procedures a patient might undergo to determine whether or not the disease has taken precedence ion their body. (medicinenet. com) Treatments There is an assortment of treatments options for those patients having lung cancer. Standard treatment includes surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Researchers have gathered and tested new treatments to include photodynamic therapy, electrocautery, way of fighting off lung cancer and unfortunately their own set of side effects as well as complications. With that being said patients should very carefully think about what they are doing before being treated. A labectomy is a procedure in which one of the five lobes is completely removed . The largest lung cancer resection surgery is the pneumonectomy, this is when the entire lung is removed, either the left or right lung. This is a treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
Since small cell lung cancer isn’t as complex as non-small cell lung cancer they can be treated with radiation treatment and chemotherapy like stated above. Small cell lung cancer is broken up into two different stages being limited and extensive. The two differentiate from the other because limited is a single drug or combination, whereas extensive simply a combination of drugs. Analysis/Discussion Lung cancer can be analyzed broadly and discussed widely because of the many aspects that surround it. The causes of lung cancer are documented and because of the various causes the severity varied in each.
Smoking, is a major cause and isn’t limited to cigarette smoking. Tobacco smoke is very harmful and even deadly. Asbestos is another cancer causing agent that can be found in the insulation of houses and buildings. Lung cancer symptoms vary due to the location of the tumor and how widespread it is. When lung tissue and other tissue begin to crowd the lung and invade it and cause coughing and shortness of breath the cancer has began to grow and spread. The symptoms aren’t directly exclusive to the nervous system, if the nervous system is corrupt such lung cancer symptoms derived will be shoulder pain all constricted on one side.
The vocal chords may also be paralyzed and cause hoarseness Lung cancer is unlike any other cancer and is by far top ranking when it comes to pain. Lung cancer is a important tumor to research and educate yourself on, please become fully award about with it. Conclusion Lung cancer is the deadliest form of cancer among both men and women. Women who smoke run the same risk of developing lung cancer as men do. The best protection anyone can adopt is to avoid smoking of all types. Do not hesitate to use the means or methods at your disposal to quit smoking, they really do work.
If you notice any unusual symptoms, like a worsening cough, traces of blood in the sputum or repeated respiratory infections, make arrangements for a medical examination as soon as possible, cancer needs to be caught as soon as it can be detected. Early detection saves lives, no matter what type cancer. References 1. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov 2. mentalhelp. net 3. medicinenet. com Acknowledgement There was no additional help given to me in the writing of this paper on Lung cancer. The listed websites were the only educational material used in the completion of this assignment.