1. His theory would require time/motion studies to determine the most efficient way to complete each task.
2. The only way to make it work is if we hire and train and promote people based on abilities.
3. Everyone knows where they “fit” into the organization and how they contribute to overall organizational productivity. Get paid for what they produce. People are only motivated by money (short term)
4. Managers and workers need to work together—as long as the workers do all the “work”
• Under the impression that we need a structure so that employees know there are rules and regulations and a formal chain of command.
• This allows people to know where or who to go to when there is a problem
• What is the philosophy of the organization/business? What are its goals, objectives, policies, procedures, etc. This step could parallel with assessment in nursing or the “P” of the Plan, Do, Study, Act. What is their strategic plan? Long range, short-term goals? What is their fiscal health?
2. Organizing: establishing the structure to carry out plans. We have a plan—now how are we going to carry it out.
3. Staffing: Recruiting, interviewing, hiring, and orienting staff. Scheduling, staff development, employee socialization, and team building are also included.
• Let’s recruit and hire the best. How will we orient them? What about the most effective means of scheduling? Is it 8 hours, 12 hours, a combination? Self-scheduling? What will we have in place for employee socialization?
4. Directing: Some overlap with staffing but includes (HR responsibilities like motivating, managing conflict, delegating, communicating, collaboration). We may disagree that this is not always an HR function.
5. Controlling: We have to make sure we are fiscally responsible, that our employees are ethical in their actions, professional and collegial.
Coined term “The Hawthorne Effect”
Discovered that Weber’s bureaucratic management system is missing out on the “Human Element”
o People need close supervision
o Will avoid work when possible
o Will avoid responsibility
o People only desire money
o People must be pushed to preform
o People want independence in work
o People seek responsibility
o People are motivated by self fulfilment
o People naturally want to work
o People will drive themselves to perform
o People’s motives change over time
o Goals can differ based on the situational goals on units should be congruent with goals of hospital
o Performance and productivity are impacted by the task, the person’s ability, experience and motivation
o No one leadership strategy works in every situation
o Leader (personality, perceptions and abilities)
o The followers (personality, perceptions and abilities)
o The situation (group norms, size, density – was the first to theorize that the relationship between leaders and followers may be impacted by events going on in their “other” roles. He said that the leader and follower contribute to the relationship and receive something from it—a 2-way process.
Is a caretaker
Uses trade-offs to reach goals
Does not identify shared values
Uses contingency rewards
Inspires others with vision
Has long-term vision
Looks at effects
-Recognizes the uniqueness of staff and organization
-Creates work environments that promote nurses health and facilitates their development
-Understands the significance of subjective reality and created meaning
-Recognizes that person and environment are integral and that nurses function best in environments where there is a “goodness of fit” that capitalizes on their strengths.
-Creates environment that promote learning and recognizes the importance of readiness and timing
-Invests in collaborative partnerships
1) highly capable individual, 2) contributing team member, 3) competent manager, 4) effective leader, 5) executive
•Differs from traditional management where organizational goals and needs are #1
•Trust, mutual respect and feedback are paramount to servant leadership
• Principal (leader)-make assumption that
-the agents are all working in the best interest of the organization or principal.
-This is because agents may have expertise or knowledge advantage over the leader as well as their own preferences, which may deviate from the principles.
-The risk is that agents will pursue their own objectives or interests instead of that of their principal. Principals must identify and provide agents with appropriate incentives to act in the organizations best interest.
Example: formal educational attainment like the new baccalaureate prepared nurse or the politically astute nurse or a charismatic CEO
Organization benefits from nurses knowledge and skills that they bring to unit. The professors are human capitol for UNCC.
Collective group knowledge or experience
•Can be helpful or detrimental to you. Not something that is based on your ability. It is based on who you know, what school you attended, etc.
•So John got into Harvard because his dad donates a ton of money to Harvard. John isn’t very smart but still got accepted
•From chaos comes order
•The workplace is not static
•According to Wolfe (2012) You can work with people more successfully by enlisting their feelings than by convincing their reason. This increases productivity.
•Quantum leadership theory is the only theory that attempts to take the “order” out of managing and leading-Remember Fayol?
•Goes beyond “technical” skills
•Getting optimal results from relationships with others or how to use emotions to your benefit because that skill is key to developing high-performing relationships
•Develops with age
•Some argue it can be learned
•5 component: self awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, social skills
•Differs from transformational leadership in that it is the leaders’ principles and values that inspire. In transformational leadership, the leader is often inspired by external forces.
•Are your actions consistent with your convictions?
•How can in incongruence harm your leadership effectiveness?
•Gotta walk the walk and talk the talk
oWhat drives you to be productive
oDirectly related to your aspirations
oExample: the challenge of the job, the joy of the work, and autonomy motivate you
oEnhanced by external rewards
oExample: money, praise, a good grade, a prize, fame, recognition motivate you
oSafety Nees: shelter, job security, retirement plan, insurance
oLove and Belonging: kids, friends, partners
oSelf Esteem (1): fame, recognition, reputation, dignity
oSelf Esteem (2, top- least important): confidence, achievements, freedom
oRecognized that people were not solely motivated by economic factors
oOperant conditioning—behavior can be shaped/manipulated through the use of rewards and/or punishment.
• Pay and Benefits
• Company Policy and Administration
• Relationships with co-workers
• Physical Environment
• Job Security
o Motivation Factors (Intrinsic)
• Work Itself
oYou can be intrinsically satisfied but dissatisfied extrinsically.
oHygiene factors can keep you from being dissatisfied or demotivated but they are not “real” motivators.
oThe opposite of dissatisfaction is not satisfaction—so even when you are happy with hygiene factors, you may not be dissatisfied but it doesn’t mean you are satisfied either.
oTo be motivated—you need both hygiene and motivation factors.
-Assumes that behaviour is a result from conscious choices among alternatives.
-The purpose of the choices is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain.
-Vroom suggested that the relationship between people’s behaviour at work and their goals was not as simple as first imagined by other scientists.
-Vroom realized that an employee’s performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities.
-The ET says that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they have certain expectations.
•Favorable performance will result in a desirable reward
•The reward will satisfy an important need
•The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile
oThis force can be calculated via a formula:
Motivation = Valence x Expectancy (Instrumentality)
oThis formula can be used to indicate and predict things as: job satisfaction, occupational choice, the likelihood of staying in a job and the effort that one might expend at work.
•Set people up in situations where they can achieve
•Achievement is more important than material or financial reward.
•Achieving the aim or task gives greater personal satisfaction than receiving praise or recognition.
•Financial reward is regarded as a measurement of success, not an end in itself.
•Security is not prime motivator, nor is status.
•Feedback is essential, because it enables measurement of success, not for reasons of praise or recognition (the implication here is that feedback must be reliable, quantifiable and factual).
•Achievement-motivated people constantly seek improvements and ways of doing things better.
•Calculated risk takers
2. Power (supervisory roles)
•Focus on influence and control
•May be forceful
•Perform well if given key position of authority
3. Affiliation (need to be liked)
•Problems: may not tell the truth
•They try to affiliate themselves with individuals and groups.
•They are driven by love and faith.
•They like to build a friendly environment around themselves.
• Social recognition and affiliation with others provides them motivation.
•I am not out to get you. I am out to make you better.
•Pushing beyond what they think they can achieve.
•Should not be done on a daily/routine basis.
•Participating encourages employees to participate in decisions that impact their jobs
2. It must be prized and cherished
3. It is consciously and consistently repeated (part of a pattern)
4. It is positively affirmed and enacted
•Identifies constituencies (residents, region served), discusses ethics, principles and standards of practice.
•High priority when it comes to planning and setting goals and making policies.
•Must be congruent.
•There can be an organizational philosophy as well as a nursing service or unit philosophy but they must both mirror the organizational mission statement.
•ALL members of the team should be able to tell you the mission, vision, values of the organization.
•The mission, vision and values should be evident. You should see them in action from top to bottom.
•These statements are worthless if there is not buy-in from all employees.
Change is linear and can be predicted
•So…Change should never be attempted unless the change agent can make a commitment to be available until the change is complete.
oThis type of strategy is used when there is little anticipated resistance to change or when the change is perceived as reasonable
oExample: Our organization did poorly on the Joint Commission Core Measure related to CAUTIs. How can I use this change strategy to improve the score?
oThe change agent doesn’t have to be in a power role, just have good interpersonal relationships
oExample: We hired a new nurse and she just isn’t fitting in. She doesn’t follow policy, she is often late. Besides firing her, how can we use this change strategy?
oExample: I am the Director of the ED. The organization has decided to implement a bar scanner and the ED is last to adopt. I am getting a lot of blowback from administration for the resistance I am getting from staff. How can I use this change strategy to get the project done?
•Even small changes can impact a system’s long-term behavior. (butterfly effect)
•So, even minor changes are not inconsequential.
•The change agent has to keep his/her eye on the target.
•People will attempt to undermine change efforts.
•If the effort fails, did you actually find “the cause?”