Klebsiella, pneumococcal pneumonia, TB, legionaires

Klebsiella, pneumococcal pneumonia, TB, legionaires

Klebsiella definition
a bacterium that causes respiratory, urinary, and wound infections.
pneumonia
common nosocomial infection
scientific name for most nosocomial infection
pneumococcal pneumonia
streptococcus pneumoniae
Gram positive diplococcus organism with thick capsule
virulence
harmful quality possessed by microorganisms that can cause disease.
path 1 pneumonia
virulent streptococcus pneumoniae inhaled into lung air sacs(alveoli)
path 2 pneumonia
multiplication of infectious organism causes inflammatory response
path 3 pneumonia
capsule interferes with c3b portion of comlement and prevents opsonization of bacteria
opsonization
an immune process where particles such as bacteria are targeted for destruction by an immune cell known as a phagocyte .
path 4 pneumonia
host phagocytic cells and fluid from blood flood alveoli resulting in difficulty breathing (XRAY)
Path 5 pneumonia
increased sputum with blood pus and pneumococci is coughed up from lungs
path 6 pneumonia
inflamed pleura: pleurisy
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleurae,and causes pain and difficulty breathing/ caused by pneumonia and other diseases of the chest or abdomen
path 7 pneumonia
bacteria entering blood stream may prove fatal due to spticemia, endocarditis(inflammation of heart valves) and menningitis
path 8 outcome
recovery as anti capsular antibodies develop and phagocytosis proceeds
phagocytosis
ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes
epidemiology
study of incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health
epidemiology of pneumonia
30 % of population carries encapsulaed strep in throat
mucociliary escalator
brings them out of the lung and keeps them out
alchohol, narcotics, cigarette smoking
impairs mucociliary escalator and increases chance of lung invasion
increased likelihood pneumonia
viral respiratory primary infection
heart and lung disease history or dx
diabetes or cancer
over age 50
prevention and treatment
vaccination to immunize against 23 capsular strains
penicillin or erythromycin
Klebsiella
enterobacteria (gram negative rod) pneumonia
most susceptible Klebsiella hosts
elderly alchoholics, very young or those with immune system compromised
nonsocomial incidence in hospitals
most pneumonia deaths
symptoms of klebsiella
same as pnumonia: cough, fever, chest pain, more chills, jelly red sputum
mortality without treatment
50% to 80%
organism that causes klebsiella
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Klebsiella pneumonia characteristics
large gram negative rod, large capsule, forms big shiny, mucousy, colonies when cultured
pathogenesis klebs 1
first present with colonies in the mouth and throat due to specific klebsiella adhesion proteins
path klebs 2
capsule is vurulent factor and inhibits c3b portion of compliment and inhibits opsonization
path klebs 3
causes lung tissue death! resistance to antibiotics common and can spread resistance to other organisms
prevention klebs
disienfect surroundings, sterilize equipment in hospitals
treatment of klebs
cephalosporin with aminoglycoside
Mycoplasm Pneumonia
mild walking pneumonia
mycoplasm pneumonia organism
not bacteria but, small rods, lacks cell wall, slow growing aerobe, fried egg colonies on agar
pathogenisis of walking pneumonia (mycoplasm)
only few organisms need to be inhaled to cause infection
attach to resportors andrespiratory eptheliam
path 1 walking
interfere with ciliary actionand ciliated cells may die off
path 2 walking
inflammatory response causes lyphocytes and macrophages to infiltrate and thicken walls of bronchioles and alveoli
path 3 walking
Whooping cough
pertussis DPT vaccine
epidemiology of whoop
not common in u.s. due to vaccinations, worldwide 300,000-500,000 deaths
symptoms of whoop
runny nose and violent, uncontrollable cough, paroxysmal cough with spasms, will whoop on inhalation, may cause burst blood vessels in eyes, vomitting and seizures possible due to powerful cough
organism of whoop
bordetella pertussis
short encapsulaed gram negative rods/ aerobes, dies easily outside host
whoop path 1
enters respiratory tract ataches to ciliated eithelium and stops action of cilia due to bacterial surface proteins containing ptx-pertussis toxin and Fha-filamentous hemagglutinin
whoop path 2
colonizes in naso pharynx trachea and bronchi/bronchioles
whoop path 3
bronchioles clog with mucous and dead cells leading to coughing
whoop pneumonia of Bordetella pertussis or
secondary infection may cause death
whooping cough toxins
increase mucous production, reduce phagocytosis and nkkiller cells and caus low blood sugar
whoop epidemiology
spread by respiratory secretions relesased into air with coughing, especially infants who cant cover their mouth
whoop prevention
vaccination dpt
vaccine dead b. pertussis cells infants vaccinated at six weeks and 12 -15 month and 18 nmonths and booster at age 5
treatment is whoop
antibiotics erythromycin which reduces length of symptoms and emiminates organisms in respiratory secretions.
Tuberculosis path 1
airborne mycobacterium tb bactera inhaled and lodge in the lungs
TB PATH TWO
bacteria are phagocytized by lung macrophages and multiply with them protected by lipid containing cell walls and other mechanisms.
path tb 3
infected macrophages are carried to various parts of the body such as kidneys brain lungs and lymph nodes/ realease of M. tuberculosis occurs
path tb 4
delayed hypersensitivyt develops whereer infection has lodged.
path tb 5
bacteria are surrounded and lymphocytes growth of the bacteria ceases
path tb 6
intense inflammatory reaction and release of enzymes can ccause caseation necrosis and cavity formation
path tb 7
with uncontrolled or reactive infection M tb exits body through the mouth while singing or coughing. lol
ltbI
Latent tb infection
ATBD
active tuberculosis disease later infects lungs bone kidney joints and central nervous system
epidemiology
highest incidence in nio whites and elderly poor and foreign born residents, low number of bact needed to infect mantoux tuberculousis test is injecting skin with purifed protien derivative of tb /swelling at site from T-ocells andmacrophages indicates infection
epidemiology transmission
throght respiratory tract
prevention ofn tb
vaccinate with attenuated organism from mycobacterium bovin which is not in the US because it causes postitive tb test
IDentify infected individuals with x-rays and skin tests/
treamtment of tb
rifampin and isoniazid
treatment of antibiotics is six months to two years.
Legionaires disease
headach muschel ach confusion dry cough sputum with bloody , plerisy surface of lungs infeced reco very slow a
legion organism
legionella pneumophila
organism legion is
primitive protobacteria gram negative rod hard to culture and need special medium stains poorly in tissue
legion path contained in aerosol water droplets from the ac and healthy prople are resisitant
accumulate alveoli o flungs attracts macrophages aby byinding c3b complement enters mutltiplies in macrophages and releases spread in tlthe lung tissue death of alveolar cells leads to repiratory failure in fifteen of cases of 100 infection is solated to lung tissue
avoid contaminated water if you are smart because they lifve in contaminated water.

David from Healtheappointments

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