Klebsiella, pneumococcal pneumonia, TB, legionaires

Klebsiella definition
a bacterium that causes respiratory, urinary, and wound infections.

pneumonia
common nosocomial infection

scientific name for most nosocomial infection
pneumococcal pneumonia

streptococcus pneumoniae
Gram positive diplococcus organism with thick capsule

virulence
harmful quality possessed by microorganisms that can cause disease.

path 1 pneumonia
virulent streptococcus pneumoniae inhaled into lung air sacs(alveoli)

path 2 pneumonia
multiplication of infectious organism causes inflammatory response

path 3 pneumonia
capsule interferes with c3b portion of comlement and prevents opsonization of bacteria

opsonization
an immune process where particles such as bacteria are targeted for destruction by an immune cell known as a phagocyte .

path 4 pneumonia
host phagocytic cells and fluid from blood flood alveoli resulting in difficulty breathing (XRAY)

Path 5 pneumonia
increased sputum with blood pus and pneumococci is coughed up from lungs

path 6 pneumonia
inflamed pleura: pleurisy

pleurisy
inflammation of the pleurae,and causes pain and difficulty breathing/ caused by pneumonia and other diseases of the chest or abdomen

path 7 pneumonia
bacteria entering blood stream may prove fatal due to spticemia, endocarditis(inflammation of heart valves) and menningitis

path 8 outcome
recovery as anti capsular antibodies develop and phagocytosis proceeds

phagocytosis
ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes

epidemiology
study of incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health

epidemiology of pneumonia
30 % of population carries encapsulaed strep in throat

mucociliary escalator
brings them out of the lung and keeps them out

alchohol, narcotics, cigarette smoking
impairs mucociliary escalator and increases chance of lung invasion

increased likelihood pneumonia
viral respiratory primary infection
heart and lung disease history or dx
diabetes or cancer
over age 50

prevention and treatment
vaccination to immunize against 23 capsular strains
penicillin or erythromycin

Klebsiella
enterobacteria (gram negative rod) pneumonia

most susceptible Klebsiella hosts
elderly alchoholics, very young or those with immune system compromised

nonsocomial incidence in hospitals
most pneumonia deaths

symptoms of klebsiella
same as pnumonia: cough, fever, chest pain, more chills, jelly red sputum

mortality without treatment
50% to 80%

organism that causes klebsiella
Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumonia characteristics
large gram negative rod, large capsule, forms big shiny, mucousy, colonies when cultured

pathogenesis klebs 1
first present with colonies in the mouth and throat due to specific klebsiella adhesion proteins

path klebs 2
capsule is vurulent factor and inhibits c3b portion of compliment and inhibits opsonization

path klebs 3
causes lung tissue death! resistance to antibiotics common and can spread resistance to other organisms

prevention klebs
disienfect surroundings, sterilize equipment in hospitals

treatment of klebs
cephalosporin with aminoglycoside

Mycoplasm Pneumonia
mild walking pneumonia

mycoplasm pneumonia organism
not bacteria but, small rods, lacks cell wall, slow growing aerobe, fried egg colonies on agar

pathogenisis of walking pneumonia (mycoplasm)
only few organisms need to be inhaled to cause infection

attach to resportors andrespiratory eptheliam
path 1 walking

interfere with ciliary actionand ciliated cells may die off
path 2 walking

inflammatory response causes lyphocytes and macrophages to infiltrate and thicken walls of bronchioles and alveoli
path 3 walking

Whooping cough
pertussis DPT vaccine

epidemiology of whoop
not common in u.s. due to vaccinations, worldwide 300,000-500,000 deaths

symptoms of whoop
runny nose and violent, uncontrollable cough, paroxysmal cough with spasms, will whoop on inhalation, may cause burst blood vessels in eyes, vomitting and seizures possible due to powerful cough

organism of whoop
bordetella pertussis
short encapsulaed gram negative rods/ aerobes, dies easily outside host

whoop path 1
enters respiratory tract ataches to ciliated eithelium and stops action of cilia due to bacterial surface proteins containing ptx-pertussis toxin and Fha-filamentous hemagglutinin

whoop path 2
colonizes in naso pharynx trachea and bronchi/bronchioles

whoop path 3
bronchioles clog with mucous and dead cells leading to coughing

whoop pneumonia of Bordetella pertussis or
secondary infection may cause death

whooping cough toxins
increase mucous production, reduce phagocytosis and nkkiller cells and caus low blood sugar

whoop epidemiology
spread by respiratory secretions relesased into air with coughing, especially infants who cant cover their mouth

whoop prevention
vaccination dpt
vaccine dead b. pertussis cells infants vaccinated at six weeks and 12 -15 month and 18 nmonths and booster at age 5

treatment is whoop
antibiotics erythromycin which reduces length of symptoms and emiminates organisms in respiratory secretions.

Tuberculosis path 1
airborne mycobacterium tb bactera inhaled and lodge in the lungs

TB PATH TWO
bacteria are phagocytized by lung macrophages and multiply with them protected by lipid containing cell walls and other mechanisms.

path tb 3
infected macrophages are carried to various parts of the body such as kidneys brain lungs and lymph nodes/ realease of M. tuberculosis occurs

path tb 4
delayed hypersensitivyt develops whereer infection has lodged.

path tb 5
bacteria are surrounded and lymphocytes growth of the bacteria ceases

path tb 6
intense inflammatory reaction and release of enzymes can ccause caseation necrosis and cavity formation

path tb 7
with uncontrolled or reactive infection M tb exits body through the mouth while singing or coughing. lol

ltbI
Latent tb infection

ATBD
active tuberculosis disease later infects lungs bone kidney joints and central nervous system

epidemiology
highest incidence in nio whites and elderly poor and foreign born residents, low number of bact needed to infect mantoux tuberculousis test is injecting skin with purifed protien derivative of tb /swelling at site from T-ocells andmacrophages indicates infection

epidemiology transmission
throght respiratory tract

prevention ofn tb
vaccinate with attenuated organism from mycobacterium bovin which is not in the US because it causes postitive tb test
IDentify infected individuals with x-rays and skin tests/

treamtment of tb
rifampin and isoniazid
treatment of antibiotics is six months to two years.

Legionaires disease
headach muschel ach confusion dry cough sputum with bloody , plerisy surface of lungs infeced reco very slow a

legion organism
legionella pneumophila

organism legion is
primitive protobacteria gram negative rod hard to culture and need special medium stains poorly in tissue

legion path contained in aerosol water droplets from the ac and healthy prople are resisitant
accumulate alveoli o flungs attracts macrophages aby byinding c3b complement enters mutltiplies in macrophages and releases spread in tlthe lung tissue death of alveolar cells leads to repiratory failure in fifteen of cases of 100 infection is solated to lung tissue
avoid contaminated water if you are smart because they lifve in contaminated water.

Klebsiella pneumoniae

what genus does klebsiella pneumoniae belong to klebsiella what type of bacteria is klebsiella pneumoniae enterobacteriaceae WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample characteristics of klebsiella pneumoniae gram …

Pneumococcal Pneumonia (bacterial infection)

streptococcus pneumoniae etiologic agent of pneumococcal pneumoniae gram positive diplococci the agent that causes this kind of pneumonia and is covered in a capsule WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia

what are the two most common illnesses attributed to Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Serratia pneumonia and UTIs three important nosocomial enterobacteria that cause nosocomial pneumonia and UTIs klebsiella enterobacter serratia WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Micro – Atypical pneumonia

What is Atypical Pneumonia? – pneumonia char by interstitial pattern of fibronodular or patchy infiltrate – dry cough*/ scanty & thin or white sputum – considered “walking pneumonia because most people don’t know they have it” T/F: It is more …

Types of Pneumonia

Pneumonia Infection of some or all of the lobes of the lungs. Fluid, microorganisms, and white blood cells fill the alveoli and air passages that makes it difficult to breathe. Aspiration Pneumonia Caused by foreign matter that is inhaled into …

Pneumonia

What is the definition of pneumonia Acute inflammation of the gas exchanging units of the lung What is the etiology of pneumonia? Infection Occasionally can be caused by inhalation or aspiration of chemical or gastric contents WE WILL WRITE A …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy