Karch Focus on Nursing Pharmacology Chapter 8

Bactericidal
Substance that causes the death of bacteria, usually by interfering with cell membranes stability or with proteins or enzymes necessary to maintain the cellular integrity of bacteria.

Bacteriostatic
Substance that prevents the replication of bacteria, usually by interfering with proteins or enzyme systems necessary for reproduction of the bacteria.

Culture
Sample of bacteria to be grown in a laboratory to determine the species that is causing the infection

Prophylaxis
Treatment to prevent an infection before it occurs, as in the use of antibiotics to prevent bacterial endocarditis or antiprotozoals to prevent malaria.

Resistance
Ability of bacteria over time to adapt to an antibiotic and produce cells that are no longer affected by a particular drug

Selective toxicity
the ability to affect certain proteins or enzyme systems that are used by the infecting organism but not by human cells.

Selective testing
the evaluation of bacteria obtained in a culture to determine the antibiotics to which the organisms are sensitive and which agent would be appropriate for treatment of a particular infection

Spectrum
Range of bacteria against which an antibiotic is effective. (eg. broad spectrum antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacteria)

Superinfection
Infections that occur when opportunistic pathogens that were kept in check by “normal bacteria” have the opportunity to invade tissues and cause infections because normal flora bacteria have been destroyed by antibiotic therapy

The goal of ______ therapy is the reduction of the invading organisms to a point at which the human immune response can take care of the infection
anti-infective

anti invectives can act to destroy an infective pathogen or to prevent the pathogen from reproducing
true

anti infectives can have a small group of pathogens against which they are effective ( ______) , or they can be effective against many pathogens ________
narrow spectrum, broad specturm

_________ of a pathogen to an anti- infective agent can be natural or acquired
resistance

the emergence of resistant strains is a serious public health problem. Health care providers need to be alert to preventing the emergence of resistant strains by not using antibiotics inappropriately. T or F
true

Adverse Effects drugs effects that are not to the desired therapeutic affects; may be unpleasant or even dangerous Brand Name name given to a drug the pharmaceutical company that developed it; also called a trade name WE WILL WRITE A …

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Pharmacodynamics facts Pharmacodynamics is the science of dealing with interactions between living organisms and foreign chemicals. Each living system has chemical reactions occurring continuously in the body. When other chemicals (drugs) are added to the body other effects occur. Drug …

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) collection of opportunistic infections and cancers that occurs when the immune system is severely depressed by a decrease in the number of functioning helper T cells; caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) AIDS-related complex …

analgesic compounds with pain-blocking properties, capable of producing analgesia anti-inflammatory agents drugs that block the effects of the inflammatory response WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample antipyretic …

alopecia hair loss; a common adverse effect of many antineoplastic drugs, which are more effective against rapidly multiplying cells such as those of hair follicles anaplasia loss of organization and structure; property of cancer cells WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

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