Introduction to Basic Principles of Pharmacology

refers to the movement of drug into the bloodstream, with the rate dependent on the physical characteristics of the drug and its formation.

Refers to the passage of drug molecules from the site of administration into the circulation.

Active metabolite

Additive effect

Adverse effect
Most drugs have a toxic effect at a high enough doses and may have a adverse effect related to toxicity at therapeutic doses.

Drugs that have both receptor affinity and efficacy



Drugs that have receptor affinity but lack efficacy

Blood Brain barrier
Restricts the penetration of polar and ionized molecules.
The barrier is formed by tight junctions between the capillaries, which inhibit the penetrations of polar molecules into the brain neurons

Blood CSF barrier


Clinical Pharmacology

Competitive antagonist
Bind to the same site as the agonist on the receptor but are reversibly bound

Competitive inhibition

Contrast Dyes

Controlled substance

refers to the process of a drug leaving the blood stream and going into the organs and tissues

Dose Calculation

Drug-drug interaction
Is defined as a change in the pharmacologic effect of a drug that results when is given concurrently with another drug or with food

Drug interactions may be caused by changes in the pharmaceutical, pharmacodynamics, or pharmacokinetic properties of the affected drug.

Drug dependence
Is a condition in which an individual feels compelled to repeatedly administer a psychoactive drug.

Duration of action

elimination of a drug from the blood relies on 2 processes:

1- biotransformation( metabolism) of a drug to one or more metabolites, primarily in the liver

2- excretion of the parent drug or its metabolites primerly by the kidneys.



Food and Drug Administration

First pass effect
Drugs are inactivated by the liver after the absorption from the gut

Drugs that are absorbed from the gut reach the liver via the hepatic portal vein before entering the systemic circulation.

Many drugs, are extensively converted to inactive metabolites during the 1st pass through the gut wall and liver and have low bioavailability

Drugs administer by the sublingual or rectal route undergo les first -pass metabolism and have a higher degree of bioavailability than drugs administered by the oral route.

Graded dose response
Ilustrates the relationship among drug dose, receptor occupancy, and the magnitude of the resulting physiologic effect.

Half- life
Is the time required to reduce the plasma drug concentration by 50%

Are suitable for treatment with drug solutions and particle suspensions.

Solutions are absorbed more rapidly than particle suspensions, so suspensions are often used to extend the duration of action of drug over many hours or days.

Most drugs are absorbed more rapidly after intramuscular than after subcutaneous administration because of the greater circulation of blood to the muscle.

Bypasses the process of drug absorption and provides the greatest reliability and control over the dose of drug reaching the systemic circulation. Because the drug is delivered directly into the blood, it has 100% bioavailability


Mechanism of action

Metabolism/ metabolite

Minimal effective plasma concentration

Noncompetitive antagonist
Block the agonist site irreversibly, usually by forming a covalent bond.

Noncompetitive inhibition

Onset of action

is designated as per os (PO), which means to administer” by mouth.” The medication is swallowed, and the drug is absorbed from the stomach and small intestine.

The oral administration is convenient, relatively safe, and the most economical.


is the study of the actions of drugs on target organs

is the study of drug disposition in the body and focuses on the changes in drug plasma concentration

Is the study of drugs and their effects on life processes

Route of drug administration

Side effect

Site action

Standard Safety Margin


Therapeutic Index

Tissue redistribution



Is the study of poisons and organ toxicity

Dose response curve shows the relationship between the drug response and the dose Free drug compared to drugs that are protein bound, molecules that can produce a pharmacologic effect WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Pharmacokinetics Absorption–>Distribution–>Metabolism–>Excretion Absorption The movement of drug from site of administration to various tissues of the body. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Distribution The movement of …

Pharmacology the study of drugs Drugs any chemical substances that affect biologic systems WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Chemical name determined by chemical structure rarely used …

EC50 the drug concentration giving 50% maximal effect (not binding affinity – the magnitude of a drug effect is not proportional to the proportion of receptors occupied by that drug) a drug with a lower EC50 is more potent (half …

angina pectoris spasmlike pain in the chest caused by myocardial anoxia bronchodilator drug that relaxes contractions of the smooth muscle of the bronchioles to improve lung venthilation WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Absorption Uptake of medications for distribution in the body through or across tissues Active ingredient Medicinal ingredient in a pure, undiluted form of the chemical that has effects on body functions WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

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