Intro to Human Sexuality: Test 2

Sex (biological)
genetalia, chromosomes, hormones, secondary sex characteristics

Secondary Sex Characteristics
Girls: boobs, bigger hips, pubic hair Guys: broader shoulders, pubic hair, chest hair, muscles, facial hair

Gender Expression
How you act, dress, speak, interact
NOT dichotomous (e.g. androgyny)

Gender Identity
the gender you identify with as your own, not dichotmus! (e.g. queer)

sex and gender match

sex and gender do NOT match

Gender Roles
Social expectations and scripts about how one “ought” to express their gender

changes in society over time

Sexual Orientation
Determined by 3 components:

Should always ask the individual if unsure of their orientation

2 Types:
Sexual attraction- what coochie or dingdong wants
Romantic attraction- what your heart/feelings want

Gender, sex, orientation
are all on a continuum!

sexually orienated towards primarily the opposite sex

sexually oriented towards primarily the same sex

Gay= males attracted to males, sometimes also refers to lesbians

Lesbian= females attracted to females

sexually oriented towards both sexes approximately equally

attracted towards people regardless of sex, gender identity, or expression

Not sexually orientated towards to either sex but may feel romantic attraction for others

often a nonspecific term referring to someone who is not primarily heterosexual

-Defination varies but can also be a gender identity

-Gender Queer= doesn’t fit into female or male identity

-Umbrella term

Cultures that are accepting and inclusive different orientations and genders
Fa’afafine of Samoa’s – third gender

-Born as boys
-Express more female gender roles early on
-Raised as females
-Sexually attracted to very masculine males

Two-spirited – Native Americans
An individual that possesses both the male and female spirit
-Many tribes considered this a third gender via spiritual sanction
-Male, Female, or Intersex at birth but take on roles of other genders

Navajo – weavers and healers (female and male roles)

Our society in terms of gender/sexual orientation perception is

we assume that everyone is heterosexuality and cisgender

its very Harmful and does not allow a lot of fluidity

Kid who identifies as a female but born a boy could get beat up if goes into a boys or girls bathroom

recognizes spectrum of orientation or gender and sees that everyone should have equal access

If someone is transitioning they deserve equal access to medical resources

Does NOT include:
-elderly people who used to be sexually attracted to people

-those with a lifelong lack of sex drive

-indivuals with low sexual desire but are NOT distressed by it
– the emotionally detached

Often asexuals pursue the desire of romance

Today’s Prevalence estimates of


3-4% males (gay);
1.5%-2% women (lesbian)

Kinsey (1984)
-Said that sexuality weren’t just black and white

-First person to propose that sexuality was a continuum
0(exclusively hetero)-60 (exclusively homo)

-Interesting that he plotted with sexuallity on a graded contium

-Novel about scale:
-Not just who you were having sex with but who you were fantasizing about

-Kinsey continuum is the first scale to suggest people engage in complex sexual behavior that cannot be reduced to simply heterosexual, homosexual

-Many theorists agree sexual orientation continuous variable

-Problems: emphasizes behaviors, but some believe people’s emotions and fantasies are the most important determinant

Kinsey’s 1984 report of sexual orientation prevalence
37 % men and 13% women reported at least one adult sexual experience with a member of the same sex that resulted in orgasm

4% men and 3% women homesexual

Today’s Prevalence estimates of


: 94-97% men
96-98% women

Today’s Prevalence estimates of


Men: 2-5%

Women: 1.5-2%

Today’s Prevalence estimates of


1% men

1% women

DSM-II (1968): Sexual Orientation Disturbance
considered sexual deviation

Only diagnosed if in conflict with distressed with sexual orientation

DSM I (1952): Homosexuality
considered a mental disorder

“sociopathic personality disturbance”

DSM-III-R (1987):
Ego-dystonic Homosexuality removed

DSM-III (1980): Ego-dystonic Homosexuality
Ego dystonic refers to thoughts, impulses, and behaviors that are felt repugnant, distressing, unacceptable or inconsistent with one’s self concept

Kinsey (1940s & 1950s):
Homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexuality.

Consensual nonmonogamy
Can love multiple people at the same time
Growing acceptance over time in europe

Evelyn Hooker (1957)
Homosexuality is not a mental disorder.

Ground-breaking study compared projective tests on 30 homosexual men
with 30 heterosexual men.
– used a rorshach and TAT test

Experienced psychologists could not distinguish between the two groups

First empirical study in this!

Genetic ways to study homosexuality
Twin studies, adoptions, family studies, molecular genetics studies

if you can get the same results for more than one study method its better

Twin Study Method
Monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal, only share half of their DNA)

If the identical twins share more in common than the fraternal twins then something is heritable

Limitations: equal environment assumption
=Cannot disentangle two

Adoptive methods
Compare the child’s similarity to biological (genetic inference) than adoptive parents

Family Studies
Compare people of different genetic relatedness
Children to parents= 0.5
Half siblings= 0.2

Molecular genetic studies
Specific genes linked to homosexuality

Biological study of homosexuality: Bailey & Pillard 1995
Homosexual males: 52% of identical twins, 22% fraternal twins, 11% adoptive brothers also gay
== genetic indication

Thing to note about genetic basis for homosexuality
if homosexuality was purely genetic then it would have disappeared a long time ago

Biological study of homosexuality:
Bailey et al., 1995
Homosexual females: 48% identical twins, 16% fraternal twins, 6% adoptive siblings also lesbian

Birth Order
Gay men have more older brothers (but not older sisters) than heterosexual men (Blanchard, 2008).

Later born brothers from same mother more likely to be homosexual (Blanchard, 2004). Each older brother increases likelihood of being gay by ~33% (Blanchard, 2008).

Biological study of homosexuality:
Hamer et al., 1993
Gay males have more gay relatives on mother’s side

Traced to gene found in 33/40 gay brothers.

Hormonal Basis for homosexuality
Studies focused on deficiencies in certain hormones or excess hormonal exposure during prenatal development – supported by animal research; support in humans is weak.

One female rat pup is exposed to a lot of androgens in the womb
sons Tend to behave homosexually
Male rhesus monkey is castrated immediately after birth

Still acts in a male sexual direction
If castrated in utero
Display female sexual behavior
Suggesting androgen behavior early in the womb will influence later sexual behavior

Behaviorist Theories of Homosexuality
Considers homosexuality a learned behavior.

E.g., same-sex encounter highly pleasurable; opposite-sex encounter frightening/aversive.

Maternal immune hypothesis
progressive immunization to male-specific antigens after the birth of successive sons in some mothers – effects male differentiation of brain in fetus.

Female body is saying woah way too much testosterone floating around, with multiple male births they develop an immunity to the testosterone
–>By the time the later born son comes along he has an immunity for testosterone as well

physiological findings in differences between the heterosexual male brain and the homosexual male brain
-Some support for differences in spatial ability and handedness.
heteromales spatial abilities > homomales & heterofemales

-homosexual males have less lateralization of functions in their hemispheres (more similar to women than men)

-Most support for studies on finger length (McFadden et al., 2005).
Typical male-type finger pattern is a longer ring finger than index finger; typical female pattern is similar length of ring and index fingers.

–>Lesbian women often have typical male-type finger pattern; gay men more likely to have typical female-type finger length

***Reflective of exposure to androgen prenatally.

Evolutionary Theories of Male Homosexuality : Kin Altruism Theory
Homosexuality evolved to channel altruism toward genetic kin rather than toward personal reproduction.

Supporting findings
Gay males are born later in birth order and tend to have more older brothers.
Gay males, on average, score higher on measures of empathy.

BUT Empirical evidence does not support the hypothesis that male gay men channel more resources to kin. — Bailey et al.

Developmental Theories of Homosexuality
Focuses on a person’s upbringing and personal history.

Evolutionary Theories of Male Homosexuality: Sexually Antagonistic Selection
Genes for homosexuality increase female reproductive success rates but decreases reproductive success in males

Some evidence in support: Female relatives of male homosexuals do have more children [in two samples].

Problems with this theory:
-Cannot explain most variance, since sexual orientation has low to moderate heritability.
-May explain a piece of the variance.

Evolutionary Theories of Male Homosexuality: Alliance Formation Theory
Focuses on homoerotic behavior.
Functions to strengthen same-sex bonds.

Functions to elevate in status hierarchy!
-Evidence Consistent with this theory
Same-sex sexual conduct observed in other primate species (esp. bonobos) seems to serve a bonding function.

Problem with this theory:
–>Theory predicts universality, but we don’t see universality of homoerotic behavior
–>Same-sex alliances are commonly formed without sex
–>Doesn’t explain why men or women would have exclusive same-sex orientation.
=No direct evidence that homosexual behavior actually functions to obtain benefits posited by theory – status and sexual access to women

Male Preferences in Mates across studies
the nonhets want many of the same things the hets want
–> affectionate, dependable, intelligent, similar in interests and religious beliefs (Engel & Saracino, 1986).

Mate preferences are often sex-typical: biological sex relates more closely to preferences than does the sex of the target of desire:
-Desire for uncommitted sex
-Preference for physical attractiveness
-Age preferences

Sexuality determince in Males
-Happens earlier on than females, females determine sexuality later on

-more of a bimodal distribution– females are more on a continuum

-less flexible than females, females are more fluid

Sex Chromosomes
-Every cell in human body (except for sperm and ova) has 23 chromosomes
22 autosomes –>How a person looks

1 sex chromosomes (23rd set)
XX – female
XY – male
Male sperm can carry either an X or Y chromosome→ determines sex of a child

X chromosome
-X chromosome is much larger

-X chromosomes: about 900-1400 genes

-Carries whole of genetic information
Genes that discover hair color,personality, and etc.

Y Chromosome
-Y chromosome: about 70-400 genes

-Many of the genes on Y are involved in male sexual differentiation

-Process of when a male → and female→ is from this and their internal and external organs (genitalia)

-Y are lighter and therefore reach the egg faster than X (get there first) and resulting in more male births
Fertilized more eggs

Sex ratio of fertilized eggs
1.6 : 1 (male:female)

Sex ratio of live births
1.05 : 1 (male:female)

Turner Syndrome
– (XO)

-phenotype: short, wide chest, webbed neck,

-gonads: not fully developed; no functional ovaries (then you don’t have production of sex hormones-estrogen,progesterone, testosterone)–> influences how individuals look at adulthood

-At puberty decreased estrogen – very little breast development, decreased pubic hair(under influence of a type of testosterone), no menstruation (sterile/infertile)

-Approx of 25% of turners is miscarried

-Incidence: 1 in 2500 live female births

-Gender ID: almost always female

-got shitty spatial skills

Sex ratio in adulthood, age 20-25, prime reproductive age ratio
1 : 1

the decrease in males are due to:

-4 x as many miscarriages/stillborn males
– Isn’t spontaneously healthy→ aborts the male

-Recessive orders linked to X chromosomes that produce serious birth defects (mental retardation) → miscarriage or death of the child

-If you have a recessive disorder on the X chromosome, male only has one X so he will def have that disorder
Females have 2 XXs and and so the other X chromosome is dominant and she won’t inherit the disorder

-Men are much bigger risk takers
-Motorcycle accidents

-Humans have evolved in small group living and coalition warfare

Rareness of men
– Men who ejaculate into women @ peak ovulation (have a boy) or a few days prior to peak ovulation (have a girl) → no exps testing this

-Sex ratios:
It’s more advantageous to produce the rarer sex because it will have higher reproductive sexual success

-More complicated to make male than female
=Female is always the default but more steps to develop male

Triple X syndrome
-female egg or male sperm gives 2 XXs

-Phenotype: normal appearance but may be tall

-Risk factor for developemental problems–> learns to walk at a later age

-Sexual development is normal and fertile

Incidence: 1:1000 live female births

Gender ID: female

A male is a male because…
He has a Y!

Klinefelter’s Syndrome
-Genotype: XXY, XXXY
— more Xs= more rare

-Appearance: feminized

-Sex Organs are underdeveloped: small testes

– Testosterone levels are lower than normal

– usually infertile

-decreased sex drive :((

– 1:1000 live male births

-Gender ID: Male

XXY Syndrome
-Phenotype: normal appearance, may be tall

-sexual development is typical except lower sperm quality but still fertile

-Risk factor: speech and learning disabilities, lower IQ than the average 100

– 9: 1000 live male births

-Large incidence of these males in prisons
– lower IQ = easier to get caught and they’re tall so easier to spot

-Gender ID: male

@ week 7:
-no Y chromosome = undiff gonads–> ovaries

-ovaries begin to produce female sex hormones to develop the remaining internal and external genitals

XX an XY embryos have
– undifferentiated gonads
– two sets of undiffereinated ducts:
– Mullerian Ducts
– Wolffian Ducts
-basic external genitals
– genital tubercle
– genital folds
– gential swelling

Y chromosmes @ 7 weeks
-expresses sex deteriming region= Y-SRY gene–> testes determing factor
–> gonads get differentiated into testes

-testes beginn to produce androgens

Typical development of male external sex organs
Under the influence of testosterone

Genital tubercle → glans penis

Genital folds → shaft of penis

Genital swelling → scrotum (sac that will eventually hold the testes once they drop)

Typical development of female internal sex organs
– in the absence of tester one:
– wolffian ducts degernate
– mullerian ducts–> fallopian tubes,uterus, upper part of the vagina

-estrogen, progesterone, and some testerone is produced

Typical development of female external sex organs
-In absence of testosterone
-Genital tubercle → clitoris (most sensitive part of genitalia)
*The genital tubercle in males develop into the head of the penis (also most sensitive part of genitalia)*

-Genital folds → inner labia
-Genital swelling → outer labia
-Produce androgens and testosterone
-Testosterone is a type of androgen
-Different types of testosterone

Typical development of male internal sex organs
-Wolffian ducts → turns into vas deferens(structure that carries the sperm → urethra), seminal vesicle
Testes have to secrete

-Müllerian inhibiting substance → then the Müllerian ducts degenerate (die off)

-Another step involved in compared to the women’s development

Sex hormones come from
adrenal glands

By week 10
the ovaries and testes change in shape and position (move towards the upper pelvis)

~ 7 month of developemnt
male testes turn into the scrotum via the inguinal canal

if women don’t develop right in their canal section they can develop a hernia

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)
– genotype: XY

– recessive/functional testerone receptor doesn’t allow for the development of proper INTERNAL male genitalia

-stemmed from X-linked recessive gene

-degeneration of the mullein ducts is inhibited

-testes don’t drop and remain in the groin

-no ovaries

-defaulty developes like a female

-vagina is present but shallow

-vulva developed normally, breasts and femine body type develop at puberty because of adrenal estrogen (they don’t have overpowering amounts of testerone as would be expected in a normal male)

-nice skin


-gender= Female!

-can assume sex drive is lower

Gender identity has to do with
the brain differentiation as a result of hormones/chromosomes NOT (internal/external) genitalia development

Cogenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)/ Adrenogenital syndrome
– XX

-somewhere in development the adrenal glands dsyfunction and expose the female to a burst of testerone–> develops in a male direction

-more masculinzed
-clitoris is more of a small penis shape

-sometimes they were identified as males and raised as so in the 50s

-in the 60s & 70s they would surgically alter them to look more typically female upon birth

– need a lifelong treatment of cortisone to keep androgen production under control

-internal sex organs develop normaly and fertility is maintained

-external organs are male like

-gender identity: usually female
– more tomboyish because of excess cortisone and more lesbians and tend to be more active

-Now we leave it up to the person on whether or no they want the surgery

Progestin – Induced Hermaphroditism
-Developing fetus exposed to high doses of androgen → masculinized genital development

-60s-70s – pharmaceuticals gave synthetic progesterone to pregnant women, it kept the child in the womb to long enough 9 months
-BUT it was very similar to testosterone so body read it as testosterone= fetus was produced to an unusual amounts of androgens

This was read by the body as T, so infant in the womb was exposed to a lot of T developed masculine genital later on in the developmental process, they still had ovaries.

=No effect on males

=Females had masculinized genitalia

Male brain differiention
-prenataly under the influence of testerone

-effects the hypothalmus to develop in the male direction

– at puberty the male hypothalamus directs a relatively constant production of sex hormones

– Paper shows, hetersexual males, have larger section region called INA 3 of anterior hypothalamus than homosexual males

-sexually dimorphic nucleus larger in males

-hemisphere functions are more lateralized

Female Brain differentiation
-hemisphere functions are more even

– no testerone leads to a different hypothalamus
– at puberty females have a cyclic secretion of sex hormones = menstrual cycle

Research with animals and castration in males shows
theres a critical period for when your brain is masculinized (gender identity development)

noticeable differences between the male and female brain via MRIs and fMRIs
– male brain: very big sex hemisphere

-female: very large indecision nucleus, chocolate center, need for commitment, telephone skills ALL in the frontal cortex

-splenium in the corpus callosum is larger in females than males

Social aspects to 5-alpha reductase
12 years as female before puberty – There is role of socialization
(nature vs. nurture)
In Dominican Republic, disorders as discovered at birth
Guivadoches – penis at birth
Mahihambra – first women than men
New Guinea – referred to as a 3rd sex

56-63% of children with 5-alpha reductase deficiency who were raised as girls underwent female-to-male gender role changes later in life (Cohen-Kettenis, 2005).

Since they are producing testosterone it’s very likely that their brains were masculinized in the womb early on = had a male gender identity from the beginning

5-Alpha Reductase Deficiency
– XY

-Discovered in dominican republic village in 1972
1-19 male have this disorder
Traced back to one women with this genetic disorder

– inability to turn testesrone into dihydrotesterone
– dysfunctional enzyme 5-alpha reductase that breaks the testerone down into dihydrotesterone

-5-alpha reductase is needed in the sexual differentiation of the male EXTERNAL genitalia (= no apparent penis)

-incomplete masculinzation since its still exposed to testerone (which differentiates the wolffian ducts)

-misidentified as females not so much now

-at puberty testerone increases muscle mass, growth of the penis & scrotum, testes descend, voice deepens, onset of sperm and ejaculation
= he a man now!

-at pubety dihydrotesterone mediates changes that are scant or absent in these dudes
-prostrate growth
-facial hair growth
– recession of hairline
– acne

-drug that blocks 5 alpha reductase release = Propecia
– used to treat hair loss in males
gender identity: Male

These individuals can reproduce but urethra is at the base of the penis, not at the head so have to be a little creative

Boys with Gender Dysphoria
assertion male genitals are disgusting, desire to not have a penis, aversion towards gender-stereotypical play

Dr $ and man with no penis documentary
1) The assumption that the human mind was a blank slate was commonly held was WRONG
-Come into this world pre programmed

2) The theory of sexual selection
-Money was wrong about sexual monomorphism (male and female brains/minds were essentially the same except by virtue of the parents socializing the kids/culture)

3) John Money became very famous even though his transcripts showed contradictory evidence as a success story from his theory
=>Looked for confirmatory evidence= confirmation bias
-Even darwin did this
-Part of the virtue of the scientific method
Correct biases of other scientists

DSM- 5 Gender Dysphoria
“A strong and persistent cross-gender identification and persistent discomfort with gender or sense of inappropriateness in gender role of that gender.”

-Individual needs to be experiencing significant distress with current sex/gender

-Or impaired in functioning that they want to see change made

Gender Dysphoria in Children must be manifested by 4 or more of the following symptoms
-strong desire to be, or insistence that s/he is some alternative gender

-Wearing or simulating some alternative gender typical clothing

-Preferences for cross-sex roles in fantasies

-Desire to participate in stereotypical games and pastimes of some alternative gender

-Strong preference for some alternative gender playmates

Girls with Gender Dysphoria
rejection of urinating in sitting position, desire to have a penis, wish to not grow breasts or menstruate, aversion towards feminine clothing

Adult Gender Dysphoria
-Frequent passing as an alt gender

-Desire to be treated an alt gender

-Behaviorally manifested

-Desire to live or be treated as some alternative gender

-Conviction that s/he has typical feelings and reactions of some alternative gender

-Preoccupation of primary/secondary sex characteristics, born into the wrong sex

Important findings for childhood GID
– only 11% of childhood GID become transexuals (no longer meet the standards for gender dysphoria in adulthood)

– 55 feminine boys with childhood GID –> 5 adults with GID, 14 heterosexual, 14 not rated (green,1987)

= GID predicts homosexuality

Rates on GID
-depends on where and when the study was published

-MTF: 1:10k to 1:100k
– x3 more common

-FTM: 1:30k to 1:400k

Biological theories
-the differentiation in prenatal development of the brain and genitalia is discrepant
– critical period of brain differeination is at a different time than the genitalia one (or visa-versa) & the influence of testerone differentiates both

-Mixed support for it:
Girls with hypergentialia dysplasia

-Females with masculinized genitals and their gender ID was female
= not a simple pattern
*very critical window of masculinization for sure

Birth Order for MTF
-have more older brothers (but not more older sisters) and later birth order (H-Y antigen?)

-Like in male homosexuality
Possible its like the maternal immune hypothesis

-As soon as the undifferentiated gonads turn into testes → boost in testosterone→ female body views excess testosterone as a foreign entity→ builds immunity to it (gets stronger with each additional son)

Social Learning/developmental theories
-sex typical behaviors are punished and the opposite sex behaviors are reinforced

-Child becomes very close to opposite-sex parent and cross-gender behaviors rewarded

-Ex: father always wanted a son; had all daughters one of the daughters was more tomboyish than the others so he took her fishing and reinforced more stereotypical male behaviors

-Not enough evidence for this so no strong empirical support

Sex in the News: Transgender Bathroom Controversy
-Texas senate bill number 6 has been proposed

-Require transgenders to use bathrooms in public schools and places to use the biological sex matching bathroom

-NFL sited against the bill
Want all fans to feel included
Goes against discriminatory laws

-Different sides of support comes from differing moral foundations
-Moral foundations theory:

-6 different foundations of morality
-Fairness: liberals/left wing everyone should
-Purity: conservatives

-Some feel like this law should not be passed because it will be exploited (anti-contamination)

-Issues of sexual morality → transgender have implications for this
People who are opposed to these bathrooms:

-Feel that heterosexual males might prey on children through this

Gender reassignment/genital reconstruction/genital confirmation surgery
-More and more private companies are beginning to cover some aspects to this surgery

-Very expensive

-Life changing so physicians want to make sure the patients are clearly diagnosed

-Must be free from psychopathology
Manic depression for example can be the cause of issues with gender identities

-Surgery usually not permitted until person has lived full-time as preferred sex, often two years

-To protect the patients → will have told their close relationship peoples and give it a feel for what’s it like living for the preferred sex

Hormone treatments for MTF
-testosterone blockers and intake of estrogen

-Increases feminine body contour ↑ E
-Not completely : hips gain more fat
-Waist to hip ratio changes

-Softens skin ↑ E

-Breast development ↑ E
-Does require implants

-Decreases facial and body hair ↓ T

-Decreases muscle strength ↓ T

-Decreases sex drive ↓ T

Surgery for MTF
-scrotum and penis removed
-penis nerve ending are on the outside so they invert this and create a vagina = sensory nerves in skin preserved

-urethra is redesigned

-may include breasts augmentation

-electrolysis for hair removal

-facial surgery: larger jaw, prominent forehead, and larger brow are altered

-surgery on vocal chords

Surgery for FTM
– uterus and ovaries are removed

-vagina is sealed off

-penis is constructed from labial tissue or other skin graft

-scrotum may be created using the labia majora

-prosthetic penis may be implanted after healing
-nerve endings arent intact though so it cannot be functional (cannot get erect during arousal)

-breasts removed and chest may be surgically altered to create a more masculine appearance
-top surgery

Movement in Europe about childhood GID
-Puts the kids on hormone blockers when they go through puberty to postpone it

-Increases window of time to make an accurate diagnosis
→ much more effective outcomes after sex reassignment surgery

outcomes of sex reassignment surgery
-90% success rate

-cures GID

-10 % dissatisfied because:
-predictors of a poor outcome:
-misdiagnosed–> transvestite
– poor surgery
– poor social life or work functioning
– suicidal tendencies
– sex reassignment later in life
-the later an individual recieves the surgery the poorer the outcome
– already has so much of their life in the other gender

Predictors of successful sex reassignment surgery outcomes
-sexual orientation to the same sex prior to surgery

-MTF have better post-surgery (genital reconstruction) outcomes than FTM

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