Infection- Pneumonia, UTI, Influenza, Cellulitis, and Gastroenteritis

-7th leading cause of death
-inflammation of the lung parenchyma- includes bronchiole and alveoli
-infection is constantly a possibility

Types of pneumonia
-acute bacterial
-legionnaires disease
-primary atypical
-pneumocystis carinii

acute bacterial pneumonia
-pneumococcal, strep, staphaureus-70% URI
-purulent rust or cream colored sputum, cough, SOB, fever, chill, dyspnea, and cyanosis
-decreased breath sounds and crackles
-causes parenchymal damage and pleural effusions
-if you get a pocket -do thoracentesis
– abrupt, acute onset of action

Legionnaires disease
-get from air conditioners and airplanes
-legionella pneumonia
-gradual onset 2-10 days
-dry cough, dyspnea, chills, fever, general malaise, headache, confusion, decreased appetite, and diarrhea

primary atypical pneumonia
-known as walking pneumonia
-develops independently from another disease
-mycoplasma pneumoniea and pharyngitis
-fever, headache, myalgias, arthalgias, and non productive dry hacking cough

viral pneumonia
-constitutes 10% of people who get it
-headache, fever, malaise, fatigue, muscle aching, dry cough, flu like symptoms

aspiration pneumonia
-aspirate & get infection
-stroke pts and ppl with emergency surgery , ppl who have a depressed cough and gag, ppl with PEG tube and NGT

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
-(PCP) abrupt onset
-includes fever, tachycardia, SOB, and dry non productive cough
-mostly ppl with HIV (+)- 60%

Pneumonia Diagnostics
-to rule out possible things
-Chest X Ray
-computed tomography-used when more detailed image needed
-sputum gram stain-type of culture for what antibiotics is right
-sputum C&S
-CBC- WBC increased
-serology testing-is blood test that detects antibodies to toxins
-pulse oximetry
-ABG- low PO2
-Fiberoptic bronchoscopy

Pneumonia Symptoms
-cough, excess mucus production, dyspnea, hemoptysis, chest pain, fever, decreased appetite, malaise, cyanosis

pneumonia treatment
-pain fever control
-Chest PT

Urinary tract Infection
-an infection that can include urethra, bladder, ureters and/or kidneys
-infecting agent- escherichia coli (E.Coli), staphylococcus saprophyticus, proteus, klebsiella, serratia, pseudomonas

UTI symptoms
-suprapubic discomfort

Lower UTI
-involves urethritis, cystitis, prostitis

Upper UTI
-involves the Kidneys (pyelonephritis)

UTI Diagnostics
-Urinalysis- >100,000mL
-urine gram stain- (+) or (-) bacteria
-urine C&S- to get specific bacteria
-WBC with differential- increased blood cells luckocytosis
-intravenous pyelography- structural
-voiding cystourethrography
-cytoscopy- direct visualization up through urethra
-pelvic/prostate exam
-renal/bladder ultrasound- detect pyelonephritis and scars
-uretoplasty- uretal stent – helps urine drain/ only in a couple days

UTI treatment
-encourage fluids
-administer analgesics

-is a highly contagious, viral respiratory disease

Influenza symptoms
-Coryza- inflammation of nasal mucus membrane
-substernal burning
-sore throat
-fever and chills
-muscle aches

Influenza diagnostics
-based on history
-clinical findings
-community outbreaks
-chest X ray – to rule out pneumonia

Influenza treatment
-amantadine and rimanitidine -prophylactic who has it and who’s been exposed
-Zanamivir- inhalation- decrease length of time and symptoms
– oseltamivir and ribavirin- tamaflu -PO and inhalation- decreases length of time and symptoms
-aspirin, acetaminophen, NSAIDS- to relieve fever and aches

Influenza Prevention
– Vaccine
-this causes reyes-syndrome

-acute bacterial infection of the dermis and underlying connective tissue
-common cause tineapedis- athletes foot

cellulitis symptoms
-redness- erythema
-peripheral neuropathy
-decreased sensation; temporary

cellulitis diagnostics
-WBC- Increased- wound culture helps to diagnose it
-Blood cultures-make sure it is not systemic- can cause sepsis if untreated

Cellulitis treatment
-maintain adequate hydration
-administer antipyretics, antibiotics
-administer pain medication as needed
-maintain bed rest
-encourage adequate nutrition for healing

-Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestine (usually small bowel)
-bacterial- “traveler’s diarrhea” from e.coli or campylobacter
“dysentary” from shigellosis

Gastroenteritis symptoms
-increased frequency of stooling
-increased water content of stool

Gastroenteritis diagnostic
-gram stain
-culture stool

Gastroenteritis treatment
-skin care

Gastroenteritis teaching
-wash hands, own set of dishes, clean bathroom extra well, food prep-should not do

Pneumonia, Influenza, COPD exacerbation

Patho -Streptococcus pneumoniae -most commonly found organism -60-75% of adults -Haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhali -common in patients with underlying lung disease -Staphylococcus aureus -common in influenza-associated pneumonia -Mycoplasma pneumoniae Goals of Treatment -Return to baseline respiratory status -Improvement in 48-72 …

Quiz 7: Pneumonia and Influenza

Lower respiratory tract infections: Infections of the bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs (as opposed to upper respiratory tract infections: common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, etc.) Influenza Also known as the flu. It is an infection caused by the influenza virus. There are …

PMM II – Influenza, Guillian-Barre Syndrome, Viral and Fungal Pneumonia, Histoplasmosis & Coccidioidomycosis

*how is influenza transmitted?* *respiratory droplets, cough, sneeze, touching articles without washing hands, etc* *when are adults and peds contagious with influenza*? *adults = one day before symptoms present*; *peds = shed virus up to six days before illness* what …

Pneumonia & Influenza 2015

Pneumonia re-emergence of deaths from antibiotic resistant pneumonia in the 21st. Normal CXR Normal chest x-ray. Pneumonia CXR Abnormal chest x-ray with shadowing from pneumonia in the right upper lung Pneumonia •Definition/epidemiology – Pneumonia: an infection of the lung parenchyma …

Pneumococcal Pneumonia (bacterial infection)

streptococcus pneumoniae etiologic agent of pneumococcal pneumoniae gram positive diplococci the agent that causes this kind of pneumonia and is covered in a capsule respiratory aerosol transmission to humans pathogenecity bacteria invade phagocytes symptoms (of pneumonia) early: mild respiratory problems, …

PNA (pneumonia)

etiology infiltrate (bacterial infection) and inflammation inside the lung catch phrase productive cough with fever risk factors elderly, bedridden, recent chest injury, recent surgery chief complaint SOB or productive cough assoc. sx cough with sputum, fever, chest pain assoc. med …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out