The graph shows that racial disparity was present among the Blacks, particularly the African Americans. The CDC reported an almost the same statistics as compared to the statistics Arizona presented. Due to this disparity, Arizona considered the African American groups to be a group of special concern. According to the data, African Americans in their region experience HIV/AIDS epidemic with at least 3 times more in severity on African American women as compared to African American men.
The rate of emergence of HIV infection continues to rise among African American women and is 60% higher than the statewide rate among African American men (HIV/AIDS Annual Report, 2009). Table 2. Estimated adult and adolescent females living with AIDS by race/ethnicity and exposure category, all years to the end of 2007 (50 states and D. C. ) Race/Ethnicity Transmission Route Total* Injection drug use High-risk heterosexual contact Other White 7,876 11,478 515 19,869 Black/African American 19,634 43,811 1,170 64,615 Hispanic/Latino 5,365 11,836 421 17,622 Asian 78 577 76 731
American Indian/Alaska Native 162 232 12 407 Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander 14 57 6 77 * Because totals are calculated independently of the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum exactly to the figure in the “Total” column Source: http://www. avert. org/usa-race-age. htm Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) According to Woods (2002), about 333 million new cases of STDs arise in the world. The United States is first in ranks, with 85% of common diseases transmitted sexually. Approximately 66. 6% of the cases of infection are with people under the age of 25.
Being each STD unique from each other, there are certain similarities shared by them. They can all be transferred by sexual intercourse or intimate body contact. One of the differences among these diseases is that many have symptoms but some do not show any symptoms at all. Symptoms include discharge from the penis or vagina, irritation of the genitals, pain during sexual intercourse or urination, and many others (Woods, 2002; Aral, Handsfield, and Douglas, 2008, p. 310). There are different kinds of STDs, which can be either viral or bacterial.
Understanding these diseases is important in knowing its effects on the infected person, allowing lessening of disease transmission, and better yet, disease prevention. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, more commonly known as AIDS caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), is a chronic, life-threatening disease that persists in the body of the infected person over a long period. The virus weakens the immune system of the host, thus making it more susceptible for that person to acquire or develop other diseases.
HIV infection may show different symptoms and signs depending on the stage of the disease. This at first may appear asymptomatic, and may have patients complaining from headache, fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and rash. Forty million people had HIV infection worldwide in 2005, almost 6% are from children’s population. Five million from this acquired HIV infection, and 3. 1 million died from AIDS. In 2003, 18,000 out of 1,000,000 people died in the United States due to HIV infection. In 2004, 15,798 in 944,305 people died of the same disease. Medical professionals detect the infection through the detection of the antibodies to HIV.
Production of the antibodies or seroconversion happens 4-10 weeks after exposure to HIV. HIV testing happens before seroconversion may lead to negative results. A minimum of 95% HIV positive results may be obtained by six months after the host has contracted the virus. No vaccine is yet available for the virus. Observing preventive measures will help avoiding transmission: making sure that the syringe and blood for transfusion are safe; and avoiding entrance of semen, vaginal secretions, and even breast milk to the body (Marshall Cavendish Corporation, p. 25). Chlamydia
Chlamydia is the most common bacterial STD infection reported, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis lives in the genitals of the carrier, specifically in woman’s vaginal secretions or in man’s semen. It means that the carrier of the bacteria can pass it through vaginal, or oral sex. The female can also infect her baby during pregnancy, causing many health problems for the baby. An estimation conducted in 1993 approximated around 4 million infections yearly. The disease is asymptomatic, but characterized by unwellness among men and women, including infants.
Infection of the male urethra does not result in large amounts of complications compared to women. Female infection on the other hand may be detected only through screening procedures during the pelvic examinations. Clinical signs are inadequate to generate clinical signs for the detection of the disease. According to Brequet (2006), Chlamydia invades cells without destroying them, causing the asymptomatic infections (p. 11). C. trachomatis may also cause ocular infections and has become a major problem around the world. Urethral infection among women even without endocervical infection also takes place.
Mild symptoms may be observed, such as vaginal discharge and dysuria. (Borchardt and Noble, 1997, p. 42; Bruess and Greenberg, 2008, p. 210). Women with the bacteria can contract HIV up to five times that a person in normal condition once they are exposed to the virus. Chlamydial infections annually deduct $3 billion to $4 billion in health-care funds. Approximately $24 billion is spent when complications are involved (Breguet, 2006, p. 11). In 2000, CDC obliged American states to report on all Chlamydia cases in their regions.
Due to unavailability of sensitive tests for the bacterium, several underreported cases existed. The institution approximated about 2. 8 million cases occurring in the US annually, three-quarters goes with 15-24-year old range. The World Health Organization projected new infections affecting 92 million people worldwide in 1999 (Nelson and Woodward, p. 127). Chlamydia ravaged the African American Women aged 15-24. A reported statistics in 2000 revealed an average of 15 million cases a year, even greater than any developed country (Collins and Pinn, 2006, p. 4).
In the United States, the second most frequently reported STD is the gonorrhea, caused by the microorganism Neisseria gonorhoeae. CDC reported around 339,583 cases in 2005, representing only less than half of all of the reported cases. Men at the age of 20 to 24 years had an incidence of 430. 6 per 100,000, while in females aged 15 to 19 years was 610. 9 in 100,000. Almost 60% of the reported cases occurred in men and women between 15 to 24 years while 80% was reported among men and women 15 to 29 years or age. Adolescents having different racial backgrounds and practice settings have rates that vary dramatically.
Disproportionately higher rates of infections were found to be higher among the African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans, as compared to whites and Asians. Even though there was a decrease of 4. 5% from 655. 8 to 626. 4, African-Americans remained as the most highly gonorrhea-affected race. In 2005, the number of affected African-Americans was 18 times greater than those affected whites, lower compared to 20 times in 2003. At the same time, there was an increase of 27. 2% among the American-Indians/Alaska Natives. Under the same time frame, Latinos had 74. 8 out of 100,000 incidents.
An increase of 8% among whites (35. 2 per 100,000) was reported, also in that two-year period. From 22. 8 to 25. 9 per 100,000, the CDC stated an increase among Asians/Pacific Islanders. Transmission occurs exclusively by oral, vaginal, or anal sexual contact. The bacterium directly invades on mucosal and glandular structures characterized by lines of columnar or cuboidal, noncornified epithelium. Almost the same symptoms in Chlamydia are observable with gonorrhea. Both organisms frequently exist in the same individual. Asymptomatic infections include urethral/cervical infections.
The endocervix, rectum, and pharynx may also be affected by asymptomatic infections. The symptomatic uncomplicated infections on the other hand consist of urethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, pharyngitis, bartholinitis, and conjunctivitis (Neinstein, et al, 2007, p. 792-795; Wallace, et al, 2007, p. 168). Syphilis Hillard (2008) discusses syphilis as a sexually transmitted chronic infection with different stages of severity. The infectious form stage would be the primary and secondary stages, followed by latent syphilis. Primary syphilis has symptoms such as indurated, painless ulcer that begins 9-90 days after exposure.
It is found on the lips, tongue, tonsil, nipples, and fingers of the infected person. Rashes on the palms of soles, lymphadenopathy, orogenital mucosal lesions are just some of the symptoms during the second stage. The third stage is the tertiary stage, characterized by more severe symptoms as found in the secondary stage, with gummatous lesions involving cardiovascular sickness (mostly affecting the aortic root), including murmur, left heart failure and ascending aorta aneurysms and neurologic illnesses such as stroke, parenchymal disease leading to generic paresis, and tabes dorsalis.
For the congenital stage, infant symptoms include snuffles, failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, jaundice, anemia, meningitis, and rashes. Childhood symptoms may include Hutchinson teeth, Saber shins, Sharcot joints, deafness, and interstitial keratitis. The primary or secondary stage, together with early part of the latent stage occurs typically within the first year of infection. On the other hand, late syphilis is the stage where several complications lead to cardiovascular, gummatous, and central nervous system (CNS) syphilis (178-179).
The infection is predominant among sexually active age groups. The rate of infection lowered by around 90% (1999-2000) and increased between 2000-2004. Higher rates of infection are recorded among men having sex with men. Same patterns can be observed among the blacks and the Hispanics. Maternal syphilis affects pregnant women with a rate of 1 million per annum. The incidence of early syphilis was high in 1990, with 20. 3 cases reported per 100,000. Dramatic decrease occurred in 2004, when it lowered to 2. 7 cases per 100,000 (Hillard, 2008).