Cold symptoms usually begin with a sore throat, which usually goes away after a day or two. Nasal symptoms, runny nose, and congestion follow, along with a cough by the fourth and fifth days. Fever is uncommon in adults, but a slight fever is possible. Children are more likely to have a fever with a cold. With cold symptoms, your nose teems with watery nasal secretions for the first few days. Later, these become thicker and darker. Dark mucus is natural and does not usually mean you have developed a bacterial infection, such as a sinus infection. Several hundred different viruses may cause your cold symptoms.
Symptoms of a viral infection Symptoms of viral infection vary depending on the specific type of virus causing infection, the area of the body that is infected, the age and health history of the patient, and other factors. The symptoms of viral diseases can affect almost any area of the body or body system. Symptoms of viral infections can include: •Flu-like symptoms (fatigue, fever, sore throat, headache, cough, aches and pains) •Gastrointestinal disturbances, such as diarrhea, nausea and vomiting •Irritability •Malaise (general ill feeling) •Rash •Sneezing •Stuffy nose, nasal congestion, runny nose, or postnasal drip.
•Swollen lymph nodes •Swollen tonsils •Unexplained weight loss In infants, signs of a viral disease can also include: •Bulging of the soft spot on the top of the head •Difficulty with feeding •Excessive crying or fussiness •Excessive sleepiness The symptoms of influenza (flu) appear suddenly and often include: •Fever of 100°F (37. 8°C) to 104°F (40°C), which can reach 106°F (41°C) when symptoms first develop. Fever is usually continuous, but it may come and go. Fever may be lower in older adults than in children and younger adults. When fever is high, other symptoms usually are more severe.
•Body aches and muscle pain (often severe), commonly in the back, arms, or legs. •Headache. •Pain when you move your eyes. •Fatigue, a general feeling of sickness (malaise), and loss of appetite. •A dry cough, runny nose, and dry or sore throat. You may not notice these during the first few days of the illness when other symptoms are more severe. As your fever goes away, these symptoms may become more evident. Influenza usually does not cause symptoms in the stomach or intestines, such as vomiting and diarrhea. Symptoms of chickenpox The most commonly recognised chickenpox symptom is a red rash that can cover the entire body.
However, even before the rash appears, you or your child may have some mild flu-like symptoms, including: •feeling sick •a high temperature (fever) of 38? C (100. 4? F) or over •aching, painful muscles •headache •generally feeling unwell •loss of appetite These flu-like symptoms, especially the fever, tend to be worse in adults than in children. Chickenpox spots Soon after the flu-like symptoms, an itchy rash appears. Some children and adults may only have a few spots, but others are covered from head to toe. The spots normally appear in clusters and tend to be: •behind the ears •on the face •over the scalp.
•under the arms •on the chest and stomach •on the arms and legs But the spots can be anywhere on the body, even inside the ears and mouth, on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet and inside the nappy area. Although the rash starts as small, itchy red spots, after about 12-14 hours the spots develop a blister on top and become intensely itchy. After a day or two, the fluid in the blisters gets cloudy and they begin to dry out and crust over. After one to two weeks, the crusting skin will fall off naturally. New spots can keep appearing in waves for three to five days after the rash begins.
Therefore different clusters of spots may be at different stages of blistering or drying out. Symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease Symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease usually start to appear three to seven days after being infected with the virus. The early symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease include: •fever, •loss of appetite, •sore throat, •small flat or raised red spots in the mouth, throat and skin. •generally feeling unwell. After 12-36 hours, any red spots will develop into yellowy-red ulcers (lesions) in your mouth, around the roof of your mouth, tongue and inside of your cheeks.
These ulcers may be sore and uncomfortable, making it difficult to eat, drink and swallow. After one to two days, sores may develop on the palms of your hands, the soles of your feet, and between your fingers and toes. In some cases, they also develop on the buttocks and genitals. The sores last for about three to six days and may be itchy and uncomfortable. They are smaller than chicken pox sores. If an adult develops hand, foot and mouth disease, their symptoms will usually be much milder compared with those of a child. Measles Symptoms of measles Around 10 days after you get the measles infection, the following symptoms begin to appear:
•cold-like symptoms, such as runny nose, watery eyes, swollen eyelids and sneezing, •red eyes and sensitivity to light, •a mild to severe temperature, which may peak at over 40. 6°C (105°F) for several days, then fall but go up again when the rash appears, •tiny greyish-white spots (called Koplik’s spots) in the mouth and throat, •tiredness, irritability and general lack of energy, •aches and pains, •poor appetite, •dry cough, and •red-brown spotty rash (see below). The above symptoms generally last for up to 14 days. Rash The measles rash appears two to four days after initial symptoms and lasts for up to eight days.
The spots usually start behind the ears, spread around the head and neck, then spread to the legs and the rest of the body. The spots are initially small but quickly get bigger and often join together. Similar-looking rashes may be mistaken for measles, but measles has a range of symptoms, not just a rash Symptoms of threadworms Threadworms often go unnoticed, but symptoms can include: •intense itching around the anus, particularly at night when the female worms are laying eggs •itching around the vagina •disturbed sleep as a result of the itching, which can make you irritable.
If you have a severe infection or persistent infections, threadworms can cause: •loss of appetite •weight loss •insomnia (difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep) •severe irritability As threadworms do not always cause symptoms, all members of your household should be treated, even if only one person notices symptoms. Symptoms of slapped cheek syndrome The symptoms of slapped cheek syndrome usually begin in the first couple of weeks after your child is exposed to the parvovirus B19 virus. The symptoms tend to follow three distinct stages. First stage The first stage is usually characterised by mild flu-like symptoms, such as:
•a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100. 4F), although your child’s temperature will not usually rise above 38. 5C (101F) •sore throat •headache •upset stomach •feeling tired •itchy skin •In many cases these symptoms do not occur, or are so mild as to be barely noticeable. •During the first stage of symptoms, your child will be most contagious. •Second stage •Between three to seven days after the symptoms start, your child will develop a bright red rash on both cheeks (the so-called “slapped cheeks”). The rash may be particularly noticeable in bright sunlight.
Third stage The third stage of symptoms usually begins one to four days after the appearance of the “slapped cheek” rash. During this stage, the rash will usually spread to your child’s chest, stomach, arms and thighs. The rash usually has a raised, lace-like appearance and may cause discomfort and itching. The rash is usually more noticeable after exercise, or if your child is hot, anxious or stressed. By this time, your child should no longer be contagious and they will be able to return to nursery or school without the risk of passing the infection onto others. The rash should then pass after a few days.
In rare cases it can last up to four or five weeks. Symptoms of molluscum contagiosum The most common symptom of molluscum contagiosum (MC) is the appearance of small lesions or abnormal patches on the skin. This is usually the only symptom. The lesions are: •firm •raised •painless The lesions usually appear in small clusters or are spread widely across different parts of the body. They are usually 2-6mm in diameter. You may notice that some of the lesions have a tiny grey head in the centre and look pearly. This head may rupture (split), causing a thick yellowy-white substance to escape.
This substance is highly infectious. You or your child should avoid handling or squeezing the lesions as this can spread the infection to other parts of the body. In children, the spots of MC can appear on the: •hands •arms •face •neck •chest and stomach In sexually active adults, the lesions usually appear on the: •groin area, spreading upwards over the abdomen •genitals •inner thighs Very rarely, lesions may develop in a number of other places in both adults and children, including: •on the palms of the hand •on the soles of the feet •inside the mouth •around the eyelid.
Otherwise healthy children and adults will usually have no more than 20 lesions on their body Symptoms of gastroenteritis in children The symptoms of rotavirus gastroenteritis normally begin with a rapid onset of diarrhoea and vomiting. Your child may also have a high temperature (fever) of 38°C (101 °F) or above, and complain of abdominal (tummy) pain. The symptoms of vomiting usually pass within one to two days. In most children, it will not last longer than three days. The symptoms of diarrhoea usually pass within five to seven days. Most children’s diarrhoea symptoms will not last more than two weeks.
Dehydration It is very important to be aware of the symptoms ofdehydration and recognise them in your child because dehydration is potentially more serious than the rotavirus infection itself. Symptoms of dehydration include: •dry mouth and eyes •no tears produced when the child cries •sunken appearance of the eyes •weakness and drowsiness •deep, rapid breathing •passing urine infrequently Rotavirus gastroenteritis shares many of the initial symptoms of more serious childhood conditions. So, it is important to be alert for signs and symptoms that suggest your child has a more serious condition.
Signs and symptoms to watch out for are: •a temperature of 38? C (101? F) or higher in children younger than three months •a temperature of 39? C (102. 2? F) or higher in children older than three months •shortness of breath •abnormally rapid breathing •a change in their normal mental state, such as appearing confused •stiff neck •a swelling in the soft part of their head (fontanelle) •a blotchy red rash, which (unlike most other rashes) does not fade when you put a glass against it •blood and/or mucus in their stools (faeces) •green vomit •they complain of severe abdominal pain.
•swelling of their abdomen •their symptoms of vomiting last longer than three days •their symptoms of diarrhoea last longer than two weeks •symptoms of dehydration persist or worsen, despite treatment with fluids and oral rehydration solutions 2. 2 If a child is ill in your setting what happens Please answer questions below How is the child attended to and made comfortable? Who assists the child if it is an injury? Where is this information recorded about the child’s injury? In the school accident book which is located in the first aid room next to the head teachers office.
All accidents whether serious or minor must be recorded, the information needed would be: •Time and date of the accident •Childs name •What happened / the cause of accident •Treatment given •Signature of first aider Who is responsible for cleaning up body fluids e. g. vomit and how is this done? When is the child sent home and who makes this decision? Who is responsible for contacting parents/carers? Who is allowed to administer medication? 2. 3 Use your books and internet and examples from your setting to tell me when a child might require urgent help or medical attention.