HOSA pharmacology

analgesic
agent that relieves pain without causing loss of consciousness (Tylenol, Advil, Motrin)

anesthetic
produces lack of feeling either local or general depending upon type and how administered (lidocaine, Xylocaine, Novocain)

antacid
neutralizes acid (Amphojel, Gelusil, Mylanta, Milk of Magnesia)

anthelmintics
used to treat worm infections

anti-impotence
used to treat erectile dysfunction

anti-infective
kills and inhibits growth of bacteria

anti-inflammatory
prevents inflammation (Advil, Motrin, Naprosyn)

antianemic
prevents or cures anemia

antianginal
prevents or relieves angina attacks

antianxiety
relieves anxiety and muscle tension (Librium, Valium)

antiarrhythmic
controls cardiac arrhythmias (lidocaine HCl, Xylocaine, Inderal)

antibiotic
destroys or inhibits growth of microorganisms (Kelfin, Rocephin, Pentids, penicillins, Augmentin)

anticholinergic
blocks parasympathetic nerve impulses; decreases oral and respiratory secretions (atropine, Artane)

anticoagulant
prevents or delays blood clotting (heparin, warfarin, Coumadin)

anticonvulsant
prevents or relieves convulsions / seizures (Tegretol, Zarontin, Dilantin)

antidepressant
prevents or relieves symptoms of depression (Tofranil, Marplan, Nardil)

antidiabetic
used to manage diabetes

antidiarrheal
prevents or relieves diarrhea; inhibits peristalsis and reduces fecal volume (Keopectate, Lomotil, Pepto-Bismol)

antidote
counteracts poisons and their effects (Narcan)

antidysrhythmic
controls and prevents cardiac dysrhythmias

antiemetic
prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting (Dramamine, Marinol, Phenergan, Reglan, Tigan)

antiflatulent
relieves gas and bloating in GI tract

antifungal
kills or inhibits growth of fungi (Diflucan, Lamisil, Lotrimin, Monistat, Nizoral, Terazol)

antigout
inhibits production of uric acid

antihistamine
acts to prevent the action of histamine (allergies) (Allegra, Benadryl, Dimetane)

antihyperlipidemic
used to lower abnormally high blood levels of fatty substances (lipids). (Lipitor, Lopid, Mevacor, Nicobid, Zocor)

antihypertensive
prevents or controls high blood pressure (Catapres, Aldomet, Lopressor)

antimanic
used for treatment of manic episode of manic-depressive and bipolar disorder (lithium)

antimigraine
causes vasoconstriction in large intracranial arteries

antineoplastic
prevents the replication of neoplastic cells; used to treat tumors (Myleran, Cytoxan)

antiparkinsonian
used for palliative relief of major symptoms of Parkinson disease (L-Dopamine, Requip, Symmetrel, Tasar)

antiprotozoal
destroys protozoa

antipsychotic
used to treat psychotic disorders

antipyretic
reduces fever (Tylenol, aspirin)

antiretroviral
used to manage HIV infections

antispasmodic
controls hypermotility in IBS

antituberculosis
used in treatment of tuberculosis; inhibits growth of mycobacteria (INH, Myambutal, Mycobutin, Priftin, PZA, Rifadin, Streptomycin)

antitumor necrosis factor
seems to slow if not halt altogether the destruction of joints by disrupting the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (Enbrel)

antitussive
prevents or relieves cough (codeine, dextrometorphan)

antiulcer
used in treatment of active duodenal ulcer and for pathological hypersecretory; controls stomach acid (Axid, Pepcid, Tagamet, Zantac)

antiviral
combats a specific viral disease (e.g. herpes) (Denavir, Famivir, Relenza, Retrovir, Tamiflu, Zovirax)

bone resorption inhibitor
treat and prevent osteoporosis

bronchodilator
dilates the bronchi (Proventil, Isuprel)

cardiac glycoside
exerts a positive inotropic effect on the heart; increases strength and force of contractions and slows heart rate (Digitalis preps)

contraceptive
device, method or agent that prevents conception

corticosteroid
supresses inflammation and modifies normal immune response

COX-2 Inhibitor
inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX-2) enzyme found in joints and other areas affected by inflammation

decongestant
reduces nasal congestion and/or swelling; produces vasoconstriction (Afrin, Sudafed)

disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
may influence the course of disease progression of rheumatoid arthritis (Arava, Cuprimine, Cytoxan, Rheumatrex, Ridaura)

diuretic
increases the excretion of urine (Diuril, Lasix, Osmitrol)

electrolyte replacement
treats or prevents electrolyte depletion

emetic
used to induce vomiting (Apomorphine HCl, Ipecac syrup)

expectorant
facilitates removal of secretion from broncho-pulmonary mucous membrane (Robitussin, Mucinex)

gastric acid-pump inhibitor
supresses gastric acid secretions; also used for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (Aciphex, Prevacid, Prilosec, Protonix)

hemostatic
controls or stops bleeding (Amicar, Humafac, vitamin K)

hormone replacement (HRT)
treat vasomotor symptoms of menopause

hypnotic
produces sleep or hypnosis; depresses CNS (chloral hydrate, Placidyl, Seconal)

hypoglycemic
lowers blood glucose level (Diabinese, insulin)

immunologic
induces immunity and prevents infectious diseases; stimulates body to produce antibodies (DTP, MMR, Engerix-B, Varivax)

immunosuppressant
treat and prevent rejection of transplanted organs

laxative
loosens and promotes normal bowel elimination; relieves constipation (Dulcolax, Metamucil)

leukotriene receptor antagonist blocker
used for treatment and management of asthma (Singulair, Zyflo, Accolate)

lipid-lowering agent
lowers cholesterol

mucolytic
breaks chemical bonds in mucus, lowering the viscosity (Mucomyst)

muscle relaxant
produces relaxation of skeletal muscle (Norflex, Paraflex, Robaxin, Skelaxin, Valium)

neuroleptic
modifies psychotic behavior (Risperdal, Zyprexa, Stelazine)

ophthalmic anti-infective
treat eye infections

otic preparations
treat ear conditions

platelet inhibitor
inhibits the ability of platelets to adhere to each other; similar to coagulant

sedative
produces calming effect without causing sleep; depresses CNS (Amytal, Buticaps, phenobarbital)

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
selectively inhibits serotonin reuptake and results in potentiation of serotonergic neurotransmissions (Luvox, Paxilo, Prozac, Zoloft)

serotonin nonselective reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)
inhibits the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine (Effexor)

smoking deterrent
used to manage nicotine withdrawl

thrombolytic
dissolves an existing thrombus (clot) when administered soon after its occurence (Abbokinase, Activase, Eminase, Kabikinase, Streptase)

thyroid hormone
increases basic metabolic rate

vasodilator
produces relaxation of blood vesels; lowers BP (Isordil, nitroglycerin)

vasopressor
produces contraction of muscles of capillaries and arteries; elevates BP; used to treat allergic reactions (Aramine, Levophed)

weight control agent
used to manage obesity

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