-Not until 1920 did the census show that most Americans lived in cities.
-Compulsory school attendance was not usual in southern states.
-The Morrill Act establishing land-grant colleges was in 1862, Tuskegee Institute for black students opened in 1881, and the “Plessy v. Ferguson” decision endorsing the concept of “separate but equal” schools was in 1896.
-Spencer posited that a “natural selection” process that existed in nature eventually placed some societies “higher” on a scale of civilization than others.
-reduce school dropouts.
-regulate child labor.
-help immigrants to learn American history and language while preserving their own ethnic heritage.
-Rhetoric and dead languages gave way to engineering and science.
-Educational opportunities increased for women, while few colleges admitted blacks and other minorities.
-Darrow’s views were in contrast to those of the social Darwinists; he insisted that environment played a determinative role in human development.
-The new class of professional social workers collected mountains of data as a precursor to offering solutions to the problems of the poor.
-The 1920 census was the first to show that, for the first time, most Americans lived in cities.
-Farmers’ purchasing power actually increased during this period.
-the need to regulate the effects of industrialism.
=gold discoveries that inflated the currency.
-The Democratic party honored its roots in Jeffersonian and Jacksonian states’ rightism, while the Republicans honored Lincolnian nationalism.
-Andrew Johnson’s impeachment began this reassertion of congressional power.
Weaver was the Populist party’s nominee for president; former president Grover Cleveland was nominated by the Democrats. In 1896, William Jennings Bryan was the nominee of both the Populist and Democratic parties.
-Cleveland requested the repeal of the act and Congress obliged, but that did not end the depression.
-In fact, the far-reaching effects of the depression undermined traditional views and caused people to demand government intervention to help the poor and unemployed.
-a worldwide scramble for empire, not including the United States, might eliminate American opportunities for growth as well as threaten its defenses.
-increasing American production necessitated the acquisition of additional markets.
-it was America’s duty and destiny to extend its “superior” government and culture to less privileged and capable peoples.
-At the time, newspapers reported that the Spanish blew up the “Maine.”
-publication of the de Lome letter
-Spain’s use of a reconcentration policy in Cuba
-an American desire for Cuban independence.
Americans were aghast that the Spanish would use such cruel measures to deny the Cubans independence.
-Many anti-imperialists were uncomfortable with the United States becoming an imperial power denying colonial peoples their independence; much like Spain in Cuba.
-Filipino independence leader Emilio Aguinaldo helped defeat Spanish forces in the Philippines anticipating that the Americans would recognize Philippine independence at the end of the Spanish-American War.
-a worldwide scramble for empire might eliminate American opportunities for growth.
-white Anglo-Saxon’s were superior to every other race.
-it was our duty to extend civilization and Christianity to less privileged peoples.
-Spain made some concessions to McKinley’s demands, but would not budge on the central issue, Cuban independence.
-The United States went to war with Spain in 1898 to help Cuba win independence.
-The popular vote margin was similar in the two elections, but McKinley won in 1896 by a wider margin in the electoral college.
-The Platt Amendment prohibited Cuba from making treaties or acquiring debts that might impair its independence, and it leased Guantanamo Bay to the United States as a naval base.