HIST: CH 19, 20, 21

CH. 19: TOWARD AN URBAN SOCIETY, 1877-1890

Summary
The development of American cities radically altered the nation’s social environment and problems.

By 1900, most Americans lived in
-small towns or on farms.
-Not until 1920 did the census show that most Americans lived in cities.

What was the average life expectancy of Americans in 1900?
forty-seven years, but only thirty-three years for African Americans

Late-nineteenth-century reforms benefiting women included
laws mandating that women control their own earnings.

During the late nineteenth century, American women did NOT
espouse fewer reforms than earlier generations of American women.

Educational changes in the years 1877 to 1900 did NOT include
-compulsory school attendance in all states.
-Compulsory school attendance was not usual in southern states.

Which of the following arrangement of events is in the correct chronological order?
Morrill Land Grant Act, establishment of Tuskegee Institute, Plessy v. Ferguson decision
-The Morrill Act establishing land-grant colleges was in 1862, Tuskegee Institute for black students opened in 1881, and the “Plessy v. Ferguson” decision endorsing the concept of “separate but equal” schools was in 1896.

In response to Booker T. Washington’s policies of political passivity and vocational training, W. E. B. Du Bois proposed political
activism and intellectual education.

Herbert Spencer’s Social Darwinism held that
society evolved by adapting to the environment through social selection.
-Spencer posited that a “natural selection” process that existed in nature eventually placed some societies “higher” on a scale of civilization than others.

As a solution to poverty in modern society, Henry George proposed to
replace all taxes with a single tax on land.

Which of the following authors argued that the American ideal of women’s “innocence” really meant their ignorance?
Charlotte Perkins Gilman in Women and Economics

Changes in higher education included all of the following except
an increased emphasis on a classical curriculum.

According to George Washington Plunkett, political “machines” survived because they
offered needed services for the poor.

Significant medical developments in Victorian America included all of the following except
prevention of tuberculosis, typhoid, and diphtheria

Which approach to poverty was used by professional social workers but not by church and charity volunteers?
help in alleviating the suffering caused by economic depression

Leaders of the settlement house movement tried to
-create small-town values and community for their city neighborhoods.
-reduce school dropouts.
-regulate child labor.
-help immigrants to learn American history and language while preserving their own ethnic heritage.

True/False

In How the Other Half Lives, Jacob Riis illustrated in words and pictures the dismal life of black sharecroppers and tenant farmers in the South.
False

Because of their rather sedate taste in entertainment, nineteenth-century Americans opposed such frivolities as circuses and melodramas.
False

Between 1877 and 1890, the middle-class American family was declining in its economic function, but increasing in emotional expression.
True

In the late nineteenth century, American colleges and universities moved away from the traditional classical curriculum toward “reality and practicality.”
True
-Rhetoric and dead languages gave way to engineering and science.

In the years 1877-1890, African Americans enjoyed more educational opportunities than did white women.
False
-Educational opportunities increased for women, while few colleges admitted blacks and other minorities.

Clarence Darrow argued that the “unjust condition of human life” produced criminals criminals were made, not born.
True
-Darrow’s views were in contrast to those of the social Darwinists; he insisted that environment played a determinative role in human development.

The new social workers of the late nineteenth century produced theoretical and utopian studies on urban blight that neglected hard facts and details.
False
-The new class of professional social workers collected mountains of data as a precursor to offering solutions to the problems of the poor.

The 1900 census showed that, for the first time, most Americans lived in cities.
False
-The 1920 census was the first to show that, for the first time, most Americans lived in cities.

POLITICAL REALIGNMENTS IN THE 1890s (CH 20)

SUMMARY
Economic depression dominated the 1890s and reshaped political alignments and attitudes.

The McKinley Tariff
used high tariff duties to promote new industries.

In 1890, the American electorate rejected
Republican legislative activism by crushing the party in the congressional elections.

Which of the following is NOT true of American farmers in the 1865-1890 period?
-Their purchasing power declined.
-Farmers’ purchasing power actually increased during this period.

The Colored Farmers’ National Alliance ended when
a posse lynched fifteen cotton pickers who were on strike.

In 1894, Jacob S. Coxey led a march on Washington, D.C. to demand
road construction projects to employ the jobless.

In the Pullman Strike of 1894, Cleveland’s intervention
affirmed the court injunction as a new weapon against labor.

Which group was the first to be seriously affected by the wave of new immigrants to America from southern and eastern Europe?
Midwestern miners

Support for free silver coinage grew rapidly from 1894 to 1896 because
the issue offered a simple, compelling answer for the economic crisis.

Which best describes the decision that shattered the Populist party in 1896?
its nomination of the Democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan for the presidency

During the 1890s, writers who rejected romanticism often wrote
regional stories depicting everyday life.

Which best describes the source of agrarian anger and protest in the late nineteenth century?
Farmers perceived their social and economic position as declining throughout the period.

Leaders of the Southern Farmers’ Alliance
tried to capture the Democratic party.

Which of the following lists events in the correct chronological order?
Republican policy to promote industry, Panic of 1893, Republican policy to regulate industry

McKinley’s first term in office was characterized by
-increased economic prosperity.
-presidential activism.
-the need to regulate the effects of industrialism.
=gold discoveries that inflated the currency.

By 1900 McKinley had begun prodding the Republican party toward a new policy of
regulating and controlling industry.

True/False

Between 1877 and 1900, southern states disfranchised African Americans with laws establishing poll taxes, literacy tests, and “grandfather clauses.”
True

While the Republican party of the 1870s and 1880s supported increased power and activity at the national level of government, the Democrats emphasized decentralized government with more power and activity at the state and local level.
True
-The Democratic party honored its roots in Jeffersonian and Jacksonian states’ rightism, while the Republicans honored Lincolnian nationalism.

Between the years 1877 and 1888, the American presidency lost power as Congress reasserted much power and authority that it had lost during the period of the Civil War and Reconstruction.
True
-Andrew Johnson’s impeachment began this reassertion of congressional power.

In 1892, southern Populists tried to unite black and white farmers to support their party.
True

James Weaver gained the presidential nomination of both the Democrats and the Populists in 1892.
-False
Weaver was the Populist party’s nominee for president; former president Grover Cleveland was nominated by the Democrats. In 1896, William Jennings Bryan was the nominee of both the Populist and Democratic parties.

In 1893, economic overexpansion led to a panic and depression which President Cleveland insisted was caused by the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
True
-Cleveland requested the repeal of the act and Congress obliged, but that did not end the depression.

In the election of 1894, Democrats won the greatest victory in the history of midterm elections.
False

During the depression of the 1890s, an increasing number of Americans blamed unemployment on individual failure.
False
-In fact, the far-reaching effects of the depression undermined traditional views and caused people to demand government intervention to help the poor and unemployed.

Southern Democrats refused to support the Populist platform in 1892, so by 1896, most southern Populists had switched to the Republican party.
True

Advocates of free silver believed in a quantity theory of money.
True

TOWARD EMPIRE (CH 21)

Summary
As the American frontier “closed,” many in America pushed for new frontiers of an empire for exploration, settlement, and new markets

Those who favored overseas expansion by the United States in the late nineteenth century argued that
-The end of the frontier in America raised fears about diminishing opportunities at home.
-a worldwide scramble for empire, not including the United States, might eliminate American opportunities for growth as well as threaten its defenses.
-increasing American production necessitated the acquisition of additional markets.
-it was America’s duty and destiny to extend its “superior” government and culture to less privileged and capable peoples.

The United States reasserted the Monroe Doctrine as a cornerstone of its foreign policy by
insisting that Britain submit its dispute with Venezuela over the boundary of British Guiana to U.S. arbitration.

Military strategist and historian Alfred Thayer Mahan advocated an American policy of
expanding the nation’s merchant marine and navy.

President Grover Cleveland responded to Cuba’s rebellion against Spain by
offering to mediate the struggle.

In 1898, the American battleship Maine was
-probably sunk as a result of an accidental internal explosion.
-At the time, newspapers reported that the Spanish blew up the “Maine.”

Which of the following factors contributed to Americans’ desire for war against Spain in 1898?
-sinking of the battleship Maine
-publication of the de Lome letter
-Spain’s use of a reconcentration policy in Cuba
-an American desire for Cuban independence.

Americans were aghast that the Spanish would use such cruel measures to deny the Cubans independence.

In leading the country toward war, McKinley might properly be labeled
a moderate in steering a middle course between popular sentiments and international considerations.

Many anti-imperialists opposed American annexation of the Philippines because they feared that
-it would violate America’s historical preference for independence and self-determination.
-Many anti-imperialists were uncomfortable with the United States becoming an imperial power denying colonial peoples their independence; much like Spain in Cuba.

The Filipinos
cooperated with Americans to drive the Spanish from their islands during the Spanish-American War.
-Filipino independence leader Emilio Aguinaldo helped defeat Spanish forces in the Philippines anticipating that the Americans would recognize Philippine independence at the end of the Spanish-American War.

United States Secretary of State John Hay’s Open Door policy
guarded against the partition of China into foreign colonies and the consequent loss of American trading opportunities.

During the early nineteenth century, some Americans urged abolition of the foreign service because
the profession itself stirred dangers of entanglement in world struggles.

Proponents in favor of overseas expansion by the United States in the latter nineteenth century argued that
-increasing American production necessitated the acquisition of additional markets.
-a worldwide scramble for empire might eliminate American opportunities for growth.
-white Anglo-Saxon’s were superior to every other race.
-it was our duty to extend civilization and Christianity to less privileged peoples.

Evangelical Protestants in the latter nineteenth century
often favored expansionism as a way to reach the lost souls of foreign “heathens.”

The Inter-American Conference held in 1889 provided for the
exchange of political, scientific, and cultural information among member nations.

Hawaii was annexed to the United States when
a joint resolution was passed by Congress during the Spanish-American War.

TRUE/FALSE

Theodore Roosevelt felt that an occasional war was necessary for the United States to prove its power and test the national spirit.
True

American businesspeople generally opposed U.S. acquisition of overseas colonies for fear that foreign products would undercut American prices.
False

Secretary of State James G. Blaine negotiated reciprocity treaties with Latin American countries in hopes of diverting their trade from Europe to the United States.
True

As president, Grover Cleveland opposed the annexation of Hawaii by the United States.
True

The Spanish-American War was inevitable, given Spain’s intransigence in refusing to consider any negotiation of the Cuban issue.
False
-Spain made some concessions to McKinley’s demands, but would not budge on the central issue, Cuban independence.

In the Teller Amendment, the United States pledged it had no intention of annexing Cuba.
True
-The United States went to war with Spain in 1898 to help Cuba win independence.

Riding a wave of patriotism and prosperity in 1900, McKinley defeated Bryan for president by an even wider margin than in 1896.
True
-The popular vote margin was similar in the two elections, but McKinley won in 1896 by a wider margin in the electoral college.

In the Platt Amendment, the United States granted U.S. citizenship to the inhabitants of Puerto Rico.
False
-The Platt Amendment prohibited Cuba from making treaties or acquiring debts that might impair its independence, and it leased Guantanamo Bay to the United States as a naval base.

The United States acquired the following territories in this sequence: first Alaska, then Hawaii, then the Philippines.
True

Racial theories of the later nineteenth century contributed to racial harmony and understanding within the United States, easing the burdens of discrimination and segregation suffered by African Americans.
False

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