HEOC 101, Pharmacology, Ch 1

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pharmacology (definition)
study of medicine

pharmakon: Greek:
medicine (and also poison and remedy)

study of

droog: Dutch
dry, as in dry herbs

early pharmacology used 3 types to cure ills:
1. plants
2. minerals
3. animals products

“Yellow Emperors’ Inner Classic”
Ancient Chinese document and discussion of yin-yang and acupuncture

First Chinese manual on pharmacology written:
1st century AD

First Chinese manual on pharmacology included:
365 medicines, 252 which were herbs

Ebers Papyrus
Medical document from Egypt written ~ 1550 BC; ~ 700 recipes for illnesses, from crocodile bites to psychiatric illnesses

large, 20 volume medical series written by ancient Iranian physician, Al-Razi; translated into Latin in 13th century, greatly influenced medicine in medieval Europe

people known as wise men, shamans, witch doctors, medicine men and women, chosen based on plant knowledge

start of modern pharmacology:
during 1800’s, chemists were able to isolate pure chemicals from plants

mass production of modern medicine began:
during WW 11 1939-1945

More US soldiers died in WWI from ____ and ____ that from actual combat injuries
infection and accidents

death rate from pneumonia in US Army in WWI was ___%
WWI 18% (WWII decreased to 1%)

artificial sources in 1900’s were thought of as ____ to natural sources

alternative medicines:
natural or homeopathic sources, massage, aromatherapy, acupuncture

new and modern technologies today in pharmacology:
genetic engineering, plant hybrids, stem cell research, rain forest plant discoveries, soil samples for new antibiotics

involves use of fragent oils in baths, as inhalants, or during massage to relieve stress and treat skin conditions

originates from ancient Chinese art in which application of pressure at certain body points is used to promote healing

thin needles are inserted at certain points of the body to foster healing

therapeutic touch:
involves use of hand movements to stimulate circulation and healing

Civil War casualties:
2.2 million served, 140k battle deaths, 224k disease and accidents

Spanish-American War casualties:
306k served, 385 battle deaths, 2k disease and accidents

WWI casualties:
4.7 million served, 53k battle deaths, 63k disease and accidents

WWII casualties:
16 million served, 292k battle deaths, 115k disease and accidents

many drugs are still derived from natural substances such as:
plants, animals, minerals, toxins

synthetic drugs
artificially created in a lab (like barbituates)

Digoxin (Lanoxin)
drug used to treat heart failure, made from the foxglove plant; this drug has been used for healing since 1500’s

Epinephrine comes from the ___ shrub
ephedra; used in ancient China and now as a bronchodilator

most estrogen hormone replacements come from:

Procaine (Novocain)
used as an anasthetic, derived from the coca plant

a rich source of Vitamin C, found as an ingredient in Vitamin C supplements

comes from bark of white willow tree and used to relieve pain and treat inflammation

domesticated animals are also a source of ____

sheep provide:
lanolin, a topical skin medication that comes from the wool

cows (bovine) and pigs (porcine) are good sources of _______
hormone replacements

horses provide humans with replacement hormone ______
estrogen (Premarin), which comes from a pregnant mare’s urine

Minerals for supplements include:
calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, copper, selenium

Diuretic drugs such as furosemide (Lasix) cause body to ____
lose excess water through kidneys, with potassium

Potassium is needed for the ____ to function normally

Potassium is found:
sweet potatoes, bananas, oranges


radioactive iodine use in medicine:
can pinpoint thryoid growths or used to shrink thyroid tumors

Botox (Botulinum toxin)
biological toxin, comes from a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum, used to reduce skin wrinkling; used in small doses

synthetic drugs can be created by:
genetic engineering or by altering animal cells; usually cheaper as they’re mass produced

Taxol, a drug for patients with cancer, was first made from Pacific yew tree bark and then developed as a synthetic drug

Insulin can be made from:
cows or pigs, but a synthetic source is most commonly used

risk of immune reactions because of ____ found in animal products

scientists can manipulate DNA to
create a drug specifically tailored to a patient

a combo or 2 drugs to treat African Americans with heart failure

term refers to the effects of a drug on the body; negative and positive physiological changes that a drug creates

there are 6 categories of desired effects of drugs:
1. curative
2. prophylactic
3. diagnostic
4. palliative
5. replacement drugs
6. destructive

curative drug:
some drugs cure problems, as in diuretics, which help body rid itself of excess fluids (penicollin to treat strep throat)

prophylactic drug:
these drugs prevent problems, as in antibiotics given before surgery to prevent infection (Cefazolin to prevent infections from surgery; vaccine to prevent measles, mumps and rubella)

diagnostic drug:
some drugs help diagnose a disease, such as barium that patients swallow to help highlight digestive problems on a radiograph (Barium sulfate for computed tomography scans)

palliative drug:
other drugs, such as pain relievers, do not cure disease, but they make patients more comfortable (morphine for cancer pain, oxygen for breathing)

replacement drugs:
these drugs replace missing substances; Levothyroxine sodium (Synthroid) is a drug that replaces a missing thyroid hormone

destructive drugs:
medications that destroy tumors and microbes

antineoplastic drugs:
anti cancer drugs, example of destructive, toxic drugs

Which of the following is the source of lanolin: (a) animal (b) plant (c) mineral (d) human (e) synthesis
(a) animal, sheep

Which of the following is the source of potassium chloride? (a) animal (b) plant (c) mineral (d) human (e) synthesis
(c) mineral

Which of the following is the source of digoxin (Lanoxin)? (a) animal (b) plant (c) mineral (d) human (e) synthesis
(b) plant, foxglove

Which of the following is the source of barbituates? (a) animal (b) plant (c) mineral (d) human (e) synthesis
(e) synthesis; this is made in the lab

Which of the following is the source of leukocytes? (a) animal (b) plant (c) mineral (d) human (e) synthesis
(d) human

During which war did mass production of penicillin begin? (a) Civil War (b) WW I (c) WWII (d) Korean War (e) Vietnam War
(c) WWII; deaths were at 18% in WWI and dropped to 1% in WWII

Are animals good sources for drugs? Explain your answer.
Animals can be good sources for drugs, such as insulin in cows and pigs (bovine and porcine) and hormone replacements found in pregnant mares. However, drugs can be synthesized in laboratories, making them cheaper, and also more consistant, without having any risks of animal impurities, or animal-human disease transmissions, such as bovine encephalopathy or “Mad Cow Disease” which will cause death in humans.

What source of drugs is in danger of disappearing?
Right now, there are lots of hidden sources of plants and possible drugs to be made in the rain forests of South America. However, farming and the need for modern housing and timber decreases the square mileage of rain forests daily, destroying possible unknown cures hidden among the animals and plants deep in the rain forest. It’s not a matter of synthesizing, as we can do that later once we know the chemical properties of the drug; rather, it’s finding the original plant/animal and finding out the possible drugs that can be made from them to cure unknown disease we currently suffer from, like cancer.

Muhammed Al-Dost is a devout Muslim. He does not eat pork. Can he have porcine insulin?
You will meet many different types of people in medicine. Patients will have specific religious and cultural needs, and you will need to find out what dietary restrictions and religious/cultural needs they have and help them, so they can heal from their illness. Luckily for Mr. Al-Dost, we have synthetic insulin available, so their is no risk of him consuming any pork and going against his religious beliefs.

Mary Littleton is adamantly against stem cell research and is refusing to use Humulin insulin. What do you think? Can you tell her that she can have this because it does not use stem cell research, or is she correct in her thinking?
Research this topic.

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