In this piece of coursework, I will plan, undertake and evaluate a safe and effective personal training programme/health promoting exercise schedule. I will be designing a circuit, which one can use to train effectively and safely. This training programme/circuit will affect ones performance in his/her sport, which in this case is football. There are many player besides training. Sleep, stress, age, environment other factors that will affect the performance of a football, alcohol, health, sex, diet, drugs and gender are the factors, but the main factor is training if one wants to improve his performance. This process relates to the principles of training. The idea behind the circuit will be to improve strength, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance and also muscular endurance. The sport I will use to relate the circuit training to the principles of training (FITT and SPORT) will be Football.
If physical fitness and skills are to be maintained or improved then training has to take place. There are four recognised principles that have to be applied to training schedules if training is to be effective: 1. Specificity 2. Progression 3. Overload 4. Reversibility 5. Tedium Specificity: – Different sports make different demands of the performer and so the training should take into account those demands. Training for squash will not improve shot-putting ability and improving aerobic capacity will have little effect on those sports that require anaerobic respiration. Training, to be effective, must be targeted at the specific sport in which the individual is participating. This is known as the Principle of Specificity. So, you train for the sport you want to do. However, aerobic fitness, muscular endurance and flexibility are common to many sports therefore specific training of the fitness elements for one sport may be of benefit to another.
Progression: – Although overload is necessary to improve physical fitness and skills level, this overload has to be progressive. During a weight-training programme there is no advantage to biceps curling 10kgs during one session and then biceps curling 50kgs the next training session. The chances are that the performer will fail in the attempt and become de-motivated or injure them self in the attempt. As muscle strength increases then there is a gradual, progressive increase in the amount of weight being curled and so improvements are made accordingly. T
he same is true when learning new skills and developing those skills to an advanced form. There is no point in trying the advanced form first; failure is almost sure to occur and so de-motivate or injure the performer. Overload: – Overloading body systems with higher work rates and increased loads causes the body to respond to these extra demands by improving its performance. This is known as the Principle of Overload. There are three ways in which overload can be attained: Frequency: Frequency is the number of times training occurs. As levels of performance raise then the frequency of training is often increased. The higher the physical demands in training, the less frequently they occur, so allowing the body to recover.
Intensity: Raising the workload increases intensity. This could be achieved by increasing the distance run during a training session, or the number of repetitions. Increasing the weight of an object such as in weight training is a form of overload. Duration: Duration, or how long training takes place, is determined by the activity and the fitness of the performer.
Increasing the duration of training is another way of overloading the body systems.Two things will determine the duration of training: 1. The type of event: for example, shot putting or other activities that make excessive demands on the body. 2. Mental pressure: where the event is intricate, difficult to perform and dangerous, such as rock climbing, might mean the training sessions are short.
Reversibility: – This is the reverse of progression. Once training and performances are reduced, the body naturally adapts to new circumstances. The aerobic capacity can quickly reduce through lack of exercise. Muscular endurance diminishes when muscles are no longer used over extended periods of time. Skills levels however, can often remain high, but performance in skills might be reduced because of physical decline. Tedium: – Tedium is essential as it prevents the athlete getting bored and variation also motivated players. All training sessions, irrespective of the sport or activity, tend to follow the same patterns. For professional sports people training is an everyday event – a way of life. Each training session is carefully planned to fit into a long-term training programme.
Training programmes are carefully designed to ensure the athlete reaches their peak performance in time for a major event such as the Olympic games. Training programmes (FITT) Training programmes can be planned over a one to two year period. Irrespective of the sport, planning a programme involves the use of the FITT principles. Frequency: Training sessions should be sufficient to bring about improvements, but there should also be enough recovery time, particularly in physically intense activities. For example, when you carry out a fitness plan like a training circuit, to improve your fitness level you must work at least 3-4 times a week, for duration of 20-30 minutes, and between 60-80% of your maximum heart rate.
Intensity: Training must be set at a sufficient level to bring about changes in the body systems. Time: Training time for each session should be judged in accordance with fitness levels. For the same intensity, this should be gradually increased in minutes (See Principles of Training – Progression) as cardio respiratory and muscular endurance increases. Type: The type of training activities included in the training programme must be the same as, or closely associated with, the particular sport or activity.
The components of fitness: – Health related fitness There is a close relationship between health and fitness, but sports related fitness is much higher and more specific and can be divided into different components. Speed Speed is the ability to move the body and limbs quickly. This ability is an important part of football because no matter in what position you play, u will always need to move around to help out your team-mates even when u don’t have the ball. You need to be quick when you are running into a space to get away from your opponent. The defenders job will always be to make sure that the striker does not get the ball and the striker’s job will be to get away from the defender, so in order to do that you will require speed.