This case study focuses on Gullaine-Barre Syndrome (GBS). The root cause of Gullaine-Barre Syndrome is not really clear, or its triggering factors. However, it is believed to occur following a respiratory or a gastrointestinal infection. It is characterized by paresthesia of the extremities leading to paralysis. However, the onset of the disorder from one person to another varies as to the occurrence of its signs and symptoms. Even the length of recovery may differ from several weeks to a couple of years.
This disorder is a puzzle to a lot of scientists and doctors, event the recovery stages differ. Some patients may recover fully, some of them may not be able to resume with their previous jobs, and a very few, less than 5% of the total cases in the United States die due to cardiovascular or respiratory complications. Diagnosis of GBS is not easy as well, but to confirm the diagnosis Lumbar puncture or spinal tap may be done, as well as, Electromyogram and nerve conduction velocity.
The treatment of the disorder may not be established but the presenting signs and symptoms, as well as the complication and the duration of its attack may be treated by plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, analgesics, muscle relaxants, tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants, physical therapy and hydrotherapy. Current studies may be able to suggest medication or treatments that would help to treat the disorder and may trace up[ what really causes Guillaine-Barre Syndrome. Guillaine_Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a disorder wherein the body’s immune system attacks a part of the peripheral nervous system.
This then is considered an autoimmune disorder wherein the body itself produced antibodies that destroys the myelin sheath that surrounds the peripheral nerves which is responsible for increasing thje the speed where the signals travel. The nerves that it affects are the ones responsible in conveying sensory information from the body to the brain and from the brain these nerves sends motor signals to the body. Gullaine-Barre Syndrome is a rare disorder affecting only 1-2 in about 100,000 populations in the United States.
There is no specific age group that is found dominant of this disorder thus everyone is at risk. Gullaine-Barre Syndrome is called a syndrome rather than a disease because there was no specific disease causing agent that was identified that is directly involved with the disorder. Guillaine-Barre Syndrome, as it affects the peripheral nerves, it is then characterized by a tingling sensation in the arms and legs as well as numbness and weakness. Some may experience loss of movement and sensation in the legs, arms, upper body and face (Swierzewski, 2000).
Some may experience paresthesia in the toes and fingers; some may experience it on the lower extremities while others involve half of the body. This then indicates the difference in the occurrence form one patient to another. Sometimes the illness progresses, leading to complete paralysis of the arms and legs and sometimes it continues up to the chest and paralyzing the breathing muscles thus the need for a ventilator or if the swallowing muscles are also paralyzed, a feeding tube may be needed (Swierzewski, 2000).
Other signs and symptoms of the disorder include lost reflexes such as knee jerks, there would be a difficulty with the eye movement, facial movement, and severe pain in the lower back, difficulty with bladder control or intestinal function, there is a very slow heart rate and difficulty in breathing. Most of the patients experience significant weakness within 3 weeks from the onset of symptoms however this disorder may progress from just a few hours. The causes of GBS are not really established, however, it is not hereditary nor is it contagious.
However in about half of the cases of GBS occurred following a viral or bacterial infection such as flu, common cold, gastrointestinal viral infection, infectious mononucleosis, viral hepatitis, campylobacterriosis from eating undercooked poultry and porphyria. Hodgkins disease, HIV virus and sometimes influenza vaccine may also trigger the onset of GBS. Some may follow a medical procedure or minor surgery, but some may occur without triggering factors. 60% of all the cases occurred following a lung or digestive tract infection.