Ground Water

How much of Earth’s liquid freshwater is found in groundwater?
33 percent
60 percent
78 percent
94 percent

Which best describes the difference between a “gaining” stream and a “losing” stream?
Gaining streams give water to the groundwater supply, whereas losing streams receive water from the groundwater supply.

Gaining streams receive water from the groundwater supply, whereas losing streams give water to the groundwater supply.

Gaining streams receive water from rain, lakes, and glaciers, whereas losing streams lose water to rain, lakes, and glaciers.

Gaining streams fill up with runoff and groundwater infiltration, whereas losing streams lose water to runoff into the oceans.

Which of the following best describes an aquifer?
a saturated, porous, and permeable layer or stratum through which water flows freely

a layer or stratum in which groundwater flows downward to the water table

the porous, permeable, saturated cone of depression in an aquitard

an unsaturated, losing stream bed or stratum below a spring

What natural hydrologic cycle processes would make groundwater a nonrenewable resource instead of a renewable resource?
The water available to recharge the aquifer is less than the amount being withdrawn, creating an imbalance, if indeed recharge actually occurs.

The water available to recharge the aquifer is more than the amount being withdrawn, creating an imbalance, if indeed recharge actually occurs.

The water in the wells dries up because of excessive rainfall.

The water in an aquifer is confined to a particular layer and cannot be tapped by digging a well.

Groundwater aquifers may naturally filter out contaminants such as sewage. Which aquifers are best for this and which are worst, respectively?
best—clay-rich shale with low hydraulic conductivity; worst—extremely impermeable aquifers (such as unfractured granite)

best—lakes and streams with easily flowing water; worst—confined aquifers composed of sandstone

best—sandstone with low hydraulic conductivity; worst—extremely permeable aquifers (such as highly fractured granite)

best—extremely permeable aquifers (such as a cave); worst—sandstone with low hydraulic conductivity

The upper limit of the zone of saturation is called the __________.
belt of soil moisture
water table
vadose zone
capillary fringe
groundwater

What are the two largest uses of groundwater in the United States?
industry and livestock
thermoelectric (hydropower) and mining
irrigation and mining
irrigation and public supply

What are permeable layers of rock, such as sand or gravel, that freely transmit groundwater called?
aquitards
aquifers
aquicludes
artesians

What is an intermittent hot spring that ejects a fountain of hot water and steam with great force called?
geyser
thermal spring
hydro-volcano
artesian well

Which geyser field contains more than half of the world’s geysers?
Kamchatka
Iceland
Yellowstone
New Zealand

Where are most caverns created?
where the water table rises to the surface
at or below the water table
at Earth’s surface
on the sides of mountains

Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt?
With a slight reduction in pressure, water in a saturated, natural conduit suddenly boils, sending a plume of steam and hot water into the air above the vent.

Water suddenly boils in disconnected voids and cracks above the water table, causing the aquifer to explosively fragment.

Water slowly boils in a network of vertical cracks above the
water table, sending up a plume of steam and hot water.

Water below the water table slowly boils in a vertical crack or natural conduit, causing a plume of condensed water vapor to rise above the vent.

Which one of the following is NOT a speleothem?
geyserite
stalagmite
stalactite
dripstone

Of the substrates listed below, which would have the largest capacity to naturally remove sewage pollutants?
slightly clayey sand
well-sorted, coarse gravel
fractured granite
limestone with solution channels and caverns

Which of the following describes the configuration of an unconfined water table around a pumping well?
cone of depression
upside-down siphon
inverted cone head
depressional withdrawal

What force pushes groundwater from pore to pore below the water table?
hydraulic gradient or pressure gradient
permeability steepness
integrated saturation impulse
seepage affluence factor

What is the vadose zone?
the saturated zone below the water table

the unsaturated zone below the water table where both air and water occupy pore space

a water table that sits on top of an impermeable aquitard

the unsaturated zone above the water table where both air and water occupy pore space

What term describes the situation when an aquitard lies above the main water table and caused a localized saturated zone?
perched aquitard
perched aquifer
perched aquizone
perched water table

Which of the following statements concerning unconfined aquifers on barrier islands and atolls is correct?
Pumping freshwater from one-large capacity well is much less likely to cause salty water to rise in the aquifer than pumping from several, widely spaced, smaller-capacity wells.

Any salty water in the aquifer will rise if the water table is lowered by pumping.

The water table must be 40 feet above sea level to keep the salty water in the aquifer below sea level.

Wells drilled below sea level will produce only saline water.

Which of the following best describes a confined aquifer?
The aquifer is closed on both ends, with a shale layer under it.

The aquifer opens out into a valley in springs.

The aquifer is overlain by sandstone or gravel.

Water flows into the aquifer on one end and is trapped by aquitards above and below.

In areas where an aquifer occurs in unconsolidated sediments, excessive pumping can cause the land to subside as the sediments compact. Which list below identifies areas of subsidence caused by water withdrawal?
Arizona, Las Vegas, San Joaquin Valley in California, Massachusetts

Mexico City, San Joaquin Valley in California, New Orleans, and Texas

Las Vegas, Denver, Florida, Houston

Colorado, New Orleans, San Joaquin Valley in California, and Mexico City

Ice glaciers contain how much ground water 84% Groundwater represents largest reservoir of freshwater available to humans WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Zone of soil moisture …

. When does a cone of depression form? When withdrawal exceeds recharge. Which condition may result in surface subsidence? Withdrawal exceeds recharge. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my …

Cone Of Depression Occurs in an aquifer when groundwater is pumped from a well. In an unconfined aquifer (water table), this is an actual depression of the water levels. Picture http://www.kalkaskacounty.net/media/planningeduc/tn_gwa15.jpg

More and more in this day and age we are informed about conditions where the quality of our water is not satisfactory enough for typical utilizations. Bacteria and microorganisms have gotten into drinking-water sources, occasionally causing acute illness in a …

When a fault is expressed at the surface, it is called a fault scarp The name of the site where slippage begins and earthquake waves radiate outward is called the hypocenter WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

Water is a valuable resource that is a necessity for living creatures. This fact holds most true for mankind. It is necessary for humans to have access to clean and sufficient water in order to survive. Unfortunately, in some parts …

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