Great Depression & New Deal ch 14 & ch 15

Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks.

New Deal
program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to end the Great Depression

Pros of Roosevelt’s New Deal
– Government has a duty to help all citizens.
– The New Deal helped the nation through the worst days of the Great Depression.
– At a time when people in other countries turned to dictators to solve problems, the New Deal saved the Nation’s democratic system.

Cons of Roosevelt’s New Deal
– Government should not interfere in business or in people’s private lives.
– New Deal spending led to increases in the national debt.
– The New Deal did not end the Great Depression.

FDR
Roosevelt during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. He was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms

AAA
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II

TVA
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
imployed millions of young men to plant trees and improve the environment during the Great Depression

Social Security
Any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an adequate or no income

The three R’s (Relief, Recovery, Reform)
FDR tried to address the Great Depression with programs that fell into these 3 categories

Causes of the Great Depression
– Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy.
– Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back.
– After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in their growth.

Effects of the Great Depression
– Many banks fail.
– Many businesses and factories fail.
– Millions of Americans are out of work.
– Many are homeless and hungry.
– Families break up and people suffer

buying on margin
practice that allows people to buy stock with a down payment of a portion of the value

Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks.

National Recovery Administration [NRA]
government agency set up during the Great Depression to enforce new codes designed to stabilize industry

deficit spending
Government spending more money than it collects in taxes (this results in government debt)

Social Security Act
1. gives money to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children

Laissez Faire Policy
Hands off. No government intervention in business. Free market/free trade

Hoover during the Great Depression
believed in volunteer efforts by business and little government intervention, neither helped the Depression.

FDR during the depression
created the new deal and systems that helped boost the economy and expand the government.

changes in government during the Great Depression and New Deal era
Federal government was greatly expanded during the Depression, making great efforts to help the local governments and its citizens throughout the new deals, social security, fdic, etc.

How depression ended
WW2 started-European countries needed jeeps and other goods and economy increased and men went to war after Pearl Harbor which created jobs.

Conservative Thoughts during the 1930’s
Provide tax relief, loans, and encouragement ot businesses. Discourage federal aid to the poor. Instead, encourage private charities and local and state governments to organize and provide poverty relief. Balance the budget to maintain financial stability. Increase tariffs (taxes) to protect American businesses from foreign competition.

Liberal thoughts during the 1930’s
Increase taxes on the income of the wealthy.
Provide direct federal relief to the poor.
Make a massive federal commitment to public works to provide jobs and encourage economic growth.
Provide aid to farmers in the form of loans and payments to take crops out of production until prices for agricultural goods stabilize.

Emergency Banking Relief Act
Within one month, the government would make 100 banks go back in business

fireside chats
Roosevelt gained support by using these radio addresses.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Limited fraud in the stock market

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Gave insurance to banks

Relief
Fix unemployment and poverty

Recovery
Bring back faith in the banks and economy

Reform
Fix the problems that caused the Great Depression

Bank Holiday
Closing banks to stop people from taking money out

Bank runs
People were running to banks to take their money out before the bank collapsed

How many people were out of jobs?
1 out of 4

What was important about FDR’s 1st 100 days in office?
15 new laws were made to fix many problems, every president since has been compared to him

Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Paid farmers to not produce so much food, that way the prices would rise

National Industrial Recovery Act
set hours, wages, and prices for workers

What is Keynsian Economics?
Government spends more to fix the economy

Federal Emergency Relief Association (FERA)
Gave money to states and towns to help with the Great Depression

Public Works Administration (PWA)
Helped construction workers get jobs doing public projects (highways, bridges, sewers)

Civil Works Administration (CWA)
Men and women paid by federal government to do public projects. Lasted one year.

Father Coughlin
Democrat who didn’t approve of the New Deal and used the radio to criticize FDR

American Liberty League
formed by conservative business leaders to oppose the new deal programs

What is the purpose of the FDIC?
To provide insurance to the banks

What was the purpose of the SEC?
Regulate the stock market

Criticisms of the New Deal
left wing: Not enough government involvement, taxes should be places on the wealthy, government should control the banks

Who was Huey Long?
decided that no person can have more than a few million dollars and that you have to give the rest of your money to the government

The National Recovery Act
gave government power to place regulations on state businesses and declared unconstitutional because that was the job of congress, not the president

The Court Packing Plan
Roosevelt’s new bill stated that 1. He gets to appoint a new judge of his choosing for every judge that had reached the age of 70 and didn’t retire 2. The bill would allow FDR to add 6 new judges, all liberal, who would support him

The Roosevelt Recession
FDR’s court plan was not approved by congress and he lost popularity, the supreme court did lighten up on the New Deal plan

1937
Year in which Unemployment goes back up when Roosevelt cuts PWA and WPA and slows government spending

Efforts of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt
fought for social reform for women and African Americans

Was the New Deal a good deal?
Yes, because the national debt went down, the federal government became more powerful in the lives of people and businesses, people viewed the government as their protector in times of trouble

For the first time,
the government played a role in helping the citizens

People began to..
expect the government to be there to help them instead of laissez Faire.

The New Deal did not..
end the Great Depression, but changes the role and size of the federal government (government runs the whole country, not just state)

The Dust Bowl
Great Plains struck by a massive draught, top soil blown away and wheat became unable to grow, unable to farm, many head west to work elsewhere

Works Progress Administration (WPA) Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks. New Deal program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to end the Great Depression WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Gross National Product the total value of goods and services produced in percent Herbert Hoover an candidate leader that had build an outstanding reputation as a businesslike administrator that guide the prosperous nation, supervise America’s food production during WWI and …

Works Progress Administration (WPA) Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks. New Deal program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to end the Great Depression WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Causes of the Great Depression ♦Uneven distribution of wealth ♦Stock market speculation “buying on the margin” ♦Excessive use of credit ♦Overproduction on consumer goods ♦Weak farm economy ♦Government policies ♦Global economic policies Black Tuesday ♦Stock market crash (Oct. 29, 1929) …

Election of 1928 Al Smith – Dem Herbert Hoover – Rep Hoover victorious because he was Rep (2 previous Pres. were Rep) Maintain prosperity Farming Crisis Over production Shows hard times on horizon WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

New Deal The _____ was Roosevelt’s plan for getting out of the Depression (relief, recovery, and reform). lame-duck time period between FDR’s election in November and his inauguration in March WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

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