Further evidence that the game is adapting to commercial forces can be seen in the number of clubs that have been floated on the stock market. Usually the main reason for widening share ownership in a football club is to create additional capital that can be used to fund stadia development and the purchase of players. Although the game in the premier League is generally in good financial health, there have been concerns about the amount of money that many players are now demanding from there clubs.
Players wages increased significantly following the abolition of the `maximum wage` in the 1960s, but are as nothing compared with developments since the late 1990s. Top players can now earn as much as 100,000 per week as a result of changes to transfer rules (the Bosman ruling), and the influx of money into the game from sponsors and television companies. Grassroots (voluntary) There are over 46,000 Voluntary sector football clubs in the UK, with a combined membership of 1. 6 million. Most voluntary football clubs rely heavily on income from subscriptions, small sponsorship arrangements, donations and a range of fundraising activities.
In a growing number of cases, clubs have been successful in securing grant aid from sources like the Lottery, the Football Trust and Playing fields Associations. Media and Sponsorship Football has always been a sport with a high media profile. The game’s enduring popularity has meant that the media have not been slow to use football as a means of attracting large audiences. We have already seen how mass-circulation newspapers like the Sun and the Mirror use football to secure their market position. The same is true for television.
Football has a broad appeal that may be spreading further due to its continuing use of better marketing. However, this does not mean that the media fail to recognize the main characteristics of their audience. In addition, Sky has also looked closely at the demographic profile of its viewers in a bid to develop coverage that best suits their needs. Effects of television on football participation The continued growth of football as a television sport has ensured that the exploits of team and individual players are never far from the spotlight.
One of the benefits of this is the positive role that television can play in encouraging more people to become involved with the sport. Despite losing in a semi-final penalty shoot-out to Germany, England’s performance in the 1990 world cup finals and in particular Paul Gascoigne’s arrival on the international stage gave many youngsters the inspiration to try to emulate their sporting heroes. Also the arrival of Michael Owen at the 1998 World Cup finals in France had a similar effect on youngsters almost a decade later. Task 5a Tennis: Current Scale and Economic Importance
Tennis is one of the UK’s most popular sports, although it has had to remain sensitive to a variety of factors that affect the leisure industry as a whole. Greater personal disposable incomes have led to more people with higher expectations of service provision than ever before. In response, tennis facility providers such as the LTA, David Lloyd, local authorities and private tennis clubs have had to be ever more mindful of the service they provide. As a result, providers have become more interested in aspects such as surface technology and the range and quality of ancillary facilities on offer.
Similarly, demands to make the sport a year-round activity have been influential in the recent growth of good quality indoor facilities. Evidence for the economic significance of tennis is difficult to come by, although information on consumer spending and the value of volunteer labour provide useful indicators. It is thought that British consumers spend around 3. 5 billion a year participating in sport, although tennis expenditure accounts for only a modest proportion of this.
Total spending on goods for racket sport participation is barely i?? 200 million, which for the average UK tennis player is roughly 30 a year. If tennis players do not contribute significant amounts of money though their purchase of tennis goods, it is interesting to see if their expenditure patterns for tennis services are any different. For example, Mintel has recently found that a family joining a private facility like a David Lloyd Leisure Club would on average be prepared to spend 1,000 on membership, activities and related purchases.
In the voluntary sector, tennis participation remains strong; this indicates that volunteer labour is still a vital element in the game’s overall development. Regional and Local Level The LTA channels much of its support for grassroots tennis through it county offices. The aim of the LTA country administration is to provide an infrastructure which supports the development of tennis at a local level for its 2,386 affiliated clubs. The LTA is currently considering how it can assist clubs by providing resources which help attract more members.
National Level The modern game of tennis originated in England after a major wing field published the first set of rules and marketed basic equipment in 1874. Not long afterwards the Lawn Tennis Association (LTA) was set up as the sports national governing body, a role it still plays today. In Northern Ireland, tennis is governed by a separate organization, Tennis Ireland (Ulster Branch), whereas the association for Wales and Scotland are affiliated to the LTA. One of the LTA’s main roles is to oversee the development of the game at all levels.
Task 5b: Funding, History and Organization Sectors A more commercial approach to tennis was begun in 1968 when the tennis authorities allowed professional players into the main competitions. From this point on, the likes of Rod Laver, who had previously turned professional, returned to the tennis scene and amateurism soon disappeared from the highest levels of the game. The financial implications of the new professional era are largely dealt with by the international and national governing bodies for the sport.