extraordinary majority
A simple majority is any number over 50%.
An extraordinary majority is a higher majority used in special cases, such as the 67% needed to override a U.S. presidential veto or the 75% majority of states that were needed to ratify the U.S. Constitution.

enumerated powers
are a list of items found in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that set forth the authoritative capacity of Congress.

necessary and proper clause

implied powers
are the powers exercised by Congress which are not explicitly given by the Constitution itself but necessary and proper to execute the powers which are.

supremacy clause
The Supremacy Clause is the provision in Article Six, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution that establishes the United States Constitution, federal statutes, and treaties as “the supreme law of the land”.

the basic premise of federalism is that
two or more governments share power and authority over the same land and people

the “necessary and proper” clause of Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution is an example of
elastic cause

The Great Depression represented a shift away from
dual federalism and toward cooperative federalism

According to John Marshalls decision in McCulloch v Maryland the elastic clause might be interpreted to mean that Congress can take a particular action not specified in the Constitution if that action is
plainly adapted to achieving a legitmate constitutional end

Money paid by one level of government to another level of government to be spent for a given purpose is called a

Suppose Congress funds elementary education by giving states a grant that the states then designate the specific educational programs to receive these funds. This is an example of a
block grant

The process of redrawing boundaries for electoral jurisdictions is known as

The complexity of the American federal system encourages

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Federalism is a term that covers the relationship between the states and the federal government, from constitutional issues to the most pressing issues happening in the year 2001. It covers laws and rights of the citizens that can be either …

When the authors say that we live in an era of “globalization,” they mean that citizens and nations are increasingly interdependent The broad, basic definition of government given by the text is legitimate use of force within specified geographic boundaries …

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