Gov Chapter 14

In a parliamentary system, the voters cannot choose
their prime minister.

An obvious and important difference between a president and a prime minister is that the latter always has
majority support in parliament.

If you are an ambitious member of the British Parliament, prudence will dictate that you
avoid displeasing the leader of your party.

With substantial Democratic majorities in both houses of Congress, President Kennedy, during the last year of his presidency, was able to secure passage of ________ of his proposals.
only one-fourth

Of the twenty-four congressional or presidential elections between 1952 and 1996, ________ produced a divided government.
fifteen

The text cites the 1946 Marshall Plan and the Tax Reform Act of 1986 to illustrate that
both were produced by divided governments.

The texts suggests “unified government” might be
something of a myth.

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
None of the above.

“Unified government” may have been present when
a and b.

The text observes that the delegates to the Constitutional Convention feared
monarchy and anarchy about equally

An aspect of George Washington’s personality that encouraged the delegates to the Constitutional Convention to approve an elected presidency was his
self-restraint.

If the Framers had decided to have the president chosen by the Congress, we could reasonably expect Congress to dominate the president
or the president to corrupt the legislature.

One of the fears expressed by the Founders about aspects of the Presidency was the fear of a president’s
using the militia to overpower state governments.

Alexander Hamilton stood at the Constitutional Convention and gave a five hour speech calling for
an elective monarchy.

The cause of those who argued for a single, elected president at the convention was, no doubt, aided by the fact that
everybody assumed that George Washington would be the first president.

One concern expressed at the Convention focused on the possibility that shared powers would cause the president to be a mere “tool” of
the Senate.

When no candidate receives a majority of votes in the electoral college, the House of Representatives decides who will win a presidential election. This circumstance
has occurred only twice.

The first plan suggested at the Convention called for the president to be chosen by
Congress.

The second plan that was suggested at the Convention for the selection of the president called for selection by
direct vote of the people.

The Framers solved the problem of how to elect the president by
creating the Electoral College.

Under the original provisions of the U.S. Constitution, the states were to choose presidential electors
however they wished.

The Framers assumed that, under the electoral college system, most presidential elections would be decided in the House. Why did this not turn out to be the case?
Because political parties ended up playing a major role in producing nationwide support for a slate of national candidates

Regarding terms of office, the pattern among most early presidents was to
serve two terms and then leave office.

Presidents are now limited to two terms by the
Twenty-second Amendment.

The legitimacy of the office of president was aided during the years of the first presidents by which of the following?
The minimal role played by the early government

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
State electors assemble in Washington to cast their ballots.

Which of the following statements about elections thrown into the House of Representatives is incorrect?
The House chooses from among the top two candidates.

The personality of which president began to alter the relationship between the president and Congress and the nature of presidential leadership?
Andrew Jackson

Prior to the 1850s, the president who made the most vigorous use of the veto power was
Andrew Jackson.

Andrew Jackson established the precedent that a president’s veto can be used
on policy grounds even when a bill may appear to be constitutional.

The era from 1836 to 1932 is commonly viewed as one of
congressional dominance.

President Lincoln justified his unprecedented use of the vague powers granted in Article II of the U.S. Constitution by citing
the conditions created by civil war.

From the examples of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln, one learns that emergency conditions and ________ can offer presidents the opportunity for substantial increases in power.
a popular and strong-willed personality

When we say that a powerful presidency has been institutionalized, we mean that its power is no longer dependent on
personality.

All of the following are powers that only the president is constitutionally entitled to exercise except
appointing ambassadors.

The powers that the president shares with the Senate include
making treaties.

Woodrow Wilson’s 1884 work on American politics suggested the business of the president was generally
routine and administrative.

Grover Cleveland used federal troops to break a labor strike by invoking his power to
take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

According to the text, the greatest source of presidential power lies in the realm of
politics and public opinion.

Until the 1930s, the pattern of U.S. legislation was that
initiative was taken by Congress and responded to by the president.

The rule of propinquity states that
power tends to be wielded by the people who are in the room where a decision is made.

The principal function of the White House Office is to
oversee the political and policy interests of the president.

The Senate is required to confirm all of the following presidential nominations except
members of the White House Office

According to the text, the three methods by which a president can organize his personal staff are
pyramid, circular, and ad hoc.

The method of staff organization that poses the risk of isolating or misinforming the president is called
pyramid.

President Clinton’s use of task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends and advisers is characteristic of which method of staff organization?
Ad hoc

When President Reagan appointed a chief of staff in 1985, he was acting according to what model of organization?
Pyramidal

With respect to advice, most presidents discover that it is best to
rely heavily on one or two key subordinates.

Today, senior White House staff members are drawn from the ranks of
the president’s campaign staff.

The most important agency in the Executive Office of the President in terms of providing administrative assistance is the
Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

Which of the following statements about the collegial nature of deliberations at cabinet meetings is true?
It is largely a fiction.

The seating order at cabinet meetings most accurately reflects
the age of the department.

The cabinet officers consist of the heads of
the major executive departments.

One reason a president has relatively little power over his cabinet departments is because he
cannot appoint more than a fraction of their employees.

The main reason the cabinet is a weak entity is that
the secretaries defend, explain, and enlarge their own agencies.

What distinguishes executive and independent agencies?
The distinction is not altogether clear

The prior work experience of presidential appointees to the executive branch is most likely to include
some federal agency.

Richard Neustadt used the label “in and outers” for
persons who alternated between government and private sector jobs.

The “in and outer” problem is not so much of a problem in parliamentary systems because cabinet officers
a and d.

A trend in recent cabinet appointments has been to
include those without political followings.

Relationships between White House staff and department heads are typically characterized by
tension and rivalry.

Personality plays a more important role in explaining the presidency than it does in explaining Congress because a president is
more likely to be judged by his character in addition to his accomplishments.

The presidential character of Lyndon Johnson was characterized by
persuasion in face-to-face encounters.

The presidential character of Richard Nixon was characterized by
deep suspicion of the media.

The presidential character of Ronald Reagan was characterized by
giving wide latitude to subordinates.

Presidents need to rely on their powers of persuasion because of their
sketchy constitutional powers and lack of ensured legislative majorities.

The presidential audiences listed by Neustadt include all of the following except
heads of state from around the world.

When President Franklin Roosevelt gave the impression of self-confidence and being on top of things, the audience that was most likely to perceive him as effective comprised
fellow politicians and leaders.

When a president makes fire-and-brimstone speeches confirming a shared sense of purpose, he is appealing principally to
partisan activists at the state and local levels.

When a presidential candidate talks on the campaign trail of the many good things that he would accomplish as president, he is appealing principally to
the general public.

Although Republicans gained seats in the House in 1980 and 1984, political scientists are reluctant to conclude that the gains were due to presidential coattails because
congressional elections are frequently insulated from presidential elections.

Which of the following statements concerning recent party gains and losses in the House and Senate is incorrect?
None of the above.

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
None of the above.

From the time of winning office to the time of leaving it, the popularity of most recent presidents
decreased except at election time.

Members of Congress pay attention to the personal popularity of a president because
politicians tend to rise and fall together.

How successful a president is with legislation in Congress is difficult to gauge because
he can keep his victory score high by not taking a position on any controversial measure.

The classic example of the honeymoon phenomenon was
Franklin Roosevelt.

Veto power and executive privilege give a president both a way of blocking action and a
means of forcing Congress to bargain.

If by December 30 the president does not sign a bill that was sent to him by Congress on December 24, he has probably
used his pocket veto.

A bill is passed to the president for action while Congress is still in session. After ten days he has still not approved it. What happens to the bill?
It becomes law

When President Reagan was governor of California, he could veto portions of a bill that were irrelevant to the subject of the bill. He was exercising what is called
a line-item veto.

More than 2,500 presidential vetoes have been made since 1789. Congress has overridden about what percent of these?
4 percent

The presidential claims for executive privilege are based on the separation of powers and on
the need for candid advice from aides.

United States v. Nixon held that there is
no unqualified presidential privilege of immunity from judicial process.

The result of the Supreme Court’s ruling in United States v. Nixon was that
Nixon was forced to hand over the disputed tapes and papers.

On the issue of a president’s right to impound funds, the U.S. Constitution says
nothing.

The major test of presidential power with respect to impoundment of funds came in the administration of
Richard Nixon.

Presidential impoundment of funds has been severely limited in recent years because of
the Budget Reform Act of 1974.

President Clinton’s approach to his program was to
have a policy on almost everything.

President Reagan’s approach to his program was to
concentrate on only a few issues at a time.

A president who is uncertain whether a policy he is considering will be controversial would be most likely to
leak parts of the policy to the media.

One major constraint on a president’s ability to plan and develop a program is the
limit of his or her time and attention span.

The typical workweek for a president numbers approximately
90 hours.

One of the crises the Clinton administration faced was
continuing war in Bosnia and other parts of Yugoslavia.

The approach taken by most presidents in dealing with the constraints that are placed on their planning and developing a program is to
stick to a few key programs.

In recent decades, the two key issues that presidents have focused on in planning and developing new programs have been
the economy and foreign affairs.

Almost every president since Hoover has tried to
reorganize the executive branch.

Which of the following statements about the legislative veto is correct?
It was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1983.

Every president since Harry Truman has commented that the power of the presidency
looks greater from the outside than from the inside.

Which of the following statements about a president’s serving more than two terms is correct?
It has been done by only one president.

________ U.S. presidents have been assassinated while in office.
Four

Which of the following is true about presidential elections during times when the country is deeply divided?
A president seldom wins reelection.

Which of the following statements about the vice-presidential route to the presidency is correct?
It works better through succession than election

The constitutional duty of the vice president is to
preside over the Senate.

Who succeeds to the presidency if both the president and vice president die?
The Speaker of the House

Who succeeds to the presidency if both the president, the vice president, and the Speaker of the House die?
The Senate president pro tempore

The position of “acting president” was created by
the Twenty-fifth Amendment.

When President Reagan was under anesthesia while being operated on in 1985, the relationship between him and Vice President Bush was governed by the
Twenty-fifth Amendment.

A president suffers a stroke but nevertheless wants to remain in office. The vice president and cabinet disagree. Who decides whether the president should continue to serve?
Congress

A president suffers a stroke but nevertheless wants to remain in office. The vice president and cabinet disagree. The president may be removed by
a two-thirds vote of Congress.

Upon the death or incapacitation of a president and the succession of the vice president, a new vice president is chosen by
the new president with congressional approval.

The objects of impeachment have most frequently been
federal judges.

An impeached president is always
indicted by the House.

________ decide(s) whether a president should be impeached.
The House

________ decide(s) whether to remove the president from office following an impeachment trial.
The Senate

When Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon for his role in Watergate, it meant that Nixon
could not be prosecuted under federal law for any crime he may have committed while in office.

Which of the following statements about President Clinton’s impeachment is incorrect?
None of the above.

Bill Clinton survived his impeachment trial for all of the following reasons except:
Clinton was a left-wing Democrat.

The fundamental concern in defining the presidential succession is to
ensure the legitimacy of the office.

Concerning the powers of the executive and legislative branches of government, the text concludes that
both have become more constrained.

Which of the following would not be a good rule of thumb for a newly elected president?
Avoid dealing with interest groups.

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