Gerontological Nursing, 8th edition, by Charlotte Eliopoulos (Chapter Two)

the process of growing older that begins at birth

Nonstochastic theories
explain biological aging as resulting from a complex, predetermines process

stochastic theories
view the effects of biological again as resulting from random assaults from both the internal and external environment

What are the biological theories of aging
Stochastic and Nonstochastic theories

What are the sociologic theories of aging
Disengagement, activity theory, continuity theory, subculture theory and age stratification theory

What are the psychological theories of aging
developmental tasks and gerotranscendence

Which theories of aging proposes that aging is a result of random assaults from both the internal and external environment?
Stochastic theories

Which theory proposes that cellular division is affected by agents that attach to DNA and interfere with mitosis?
Cross-linking theory, one of the stochastic theories

free radical – defined
unstable, reactive molecule containing an extra electrical charge that are generated from oxygen metabolism, reactions with other free radicals, or oxidation of ozone, pesticides and other pollutants.

Can free radicals generate more free radicals?
Yes, free radicals are self-perpetuating

What vitamins or substances can help protect against free radicals
Vit E and C, and beta-carotene

How do antioxidants offer protections from free radicals
By the antioxidants being oxidized first rather than other substances that make free radicals

lipofuscin – defined
a lipoprotein byproduct of oxidation that can be seen only under a fluorescent microscope.

Lipofuscin is associated with the oxidation of what substance in the body
unsaturated lipids

What theory of aging proposes the repeated use and injury of the body over time reduces the functioning of the body.
Wear and tear theory, a stochastic theory

Mutation accumulation theory (evolutionary theory – a stochastic theory)
suggest that aging occurs due to a declining force of natural selection with age. genetic mutations that affect children will eventually be eliminated leaving only mutations that effect the older adults to be passed on in our offspring.

antagonistic pleiotropy theory ( evolutionary theory – a stochastic theory)
suggests that accumulated mutant genes that have negative effects in late life may have had beneficial effects in early life.

what theory proposes that aging is related to the use of the body’s energy rather than genetics, as in the body puts energy use focus on reproduction rather than processes to extend life.
disposable soma theory (evolutionary theory – a stochastic theory)

biogerontology – define
the study of the connection between aging and disease processes

Apoptosis – define (nonstochastic theory)
a process of programmed cell death that continuously occurs throughout life due to biochemical events.

What nonstochastic theory proposed that humans are born with a genetic program or biological clock that predetermines the life span.
Programmed theory of aging

Error theory (nonstochastic theory)
genetic mutations are responsible for again by causing organ decline as a result of self-perpetuating cellular mutations.

What two immune system structures are believed to be affected by aging?
bone marrow and the thymus.

What theory of aging is that cells undergo changes with age and the body misidentifies these irregular cells as foreign. or that the body cells are normal but the breakdown of immunochemical memory cells that cause the misidentification.
Autoimmune reations theories (Nonstochastic)

What theory suggests that aging is the result of changes in the brain and endocrine glands
Neuroendocrine and neurochemical theories (nonstochastic)

What environmental factors are believed to threaten health or associated with aging.
ingestion of mercury, lead, arsenic, radioactive isotopes, pesticides, smoking, air pollutants, crowded living conditions, high noise levels and more.

What theory was developed by Elaine Cumming and William Henry?
The disengagement theory (Sociologic theory)

Disengagement theory (Sociologic theory)
views aging as a process in which society and the individual gradually withdraw or disengage, from each other to the mutual satisfaction and benefit of both.

What theory asserts that an older person should continue a middle aged lifestyle.
The activity theory (Sociologic theory)

Positive of the Activity theory (Sociologic theory)
activity is generally assumed to be more desirable than inactivity because if helps physical, mental and social well-being

A problem with the Activity theory (Sociologic theory)
it assumes that most older people desire and are able to maintain a middle aged lifestyle. many older people lack the physical, emotional, social and economic resources to maintain active roles in society.

What theory holds that a persons personality is stable and the characteristics of a personal young life will influence their aging process as well.
The continuity theory (Sociologic theory)

What theory of aging purposes that healthy psychological aging is a result of the successful completion of challenges and the adjustments that must be made to process through life’s experiences.
The developmental task theory (Psychological theory)

What are Robert Peck’s three specific challenges for older adults that influence aging
1- ego differentiation vs. role preoccupation, 2- body transcendence vs. body preoccupation, 3- ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation

ego differentiation vs. role preoccupation
develop satisfaction from oneself as a person rather than through parental or occupational roles

body transcendence vs. body preoccupation
find psychological pleasures rather than become absorbed with health problems or physical limitations imposed by aging

ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
achieve satisfaction through reflection on one’s past life and accomplishments rather than be preoccupied with the finite number of years left to live.

Erikson’s Old age development task
integrity vs. despair.

Robert Butler and Myrna Lewis’s three tasks
1- adjusting to one’s infirmities, 2- developing a sense of satisfaction with the life that has been lived, 3-preparing for death

suggests aging entails a transition from a rational, materialistic metaperspective to a cosmic, and transcendent vision. less concerned with physical bodies, material possessions and meaningless relationships but more significance and greater connections with others.

6 factors that contribute to a long and healthy life
diet, activity, play and laughter, faith, empowerment, and stress management

What things can a nurse do to help their patients psychosocially through the aging process
*lean about the patients life, background, family, work, hobbies *build on lifelong interests with new activities *accept patients discussions of their regrets and dissatisfactions. *encourage reminiscence *respect patients faith and assist them in it. *use humor *personalize the environment of an institutional setting as much as possible *recognize the unique assets and characteristics of each patient

Responsibilities of the gerontological nurse the responsibilities of the health care professional include direct care, management and development of the professional and other nursing personnel, and evaluation of care and services for the older adult. Generalists function as direct care …

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Identify the best statement about gerontological nursing. a. Nurses have only recently become involved in the care of the older adult. b. Gerontological care was the second specialty in which the American Nurses Association (ANA) offered a …

Ageism discrimination against middle-aged and elderly people Alzheimer’s disease an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

Sociological Theories Disengagement Theory, Activity Theory, Social Exchange Theory, Continuity Theory, Subculture Theory, Age Stratification Theory Disengagement Theory Adults gradually disengage, withdrawal, transition of responsibilities to young Criticism = no consideration for social and environmental factors WE WILL WRITE A …

metaparadigm -consists of the major concepts of the discipline: person, environment, health, and nursing Nightingale’s Philosophy -environment/cleanliness/hand washing (clean water, ventilation, balanced diet/documentation, sunlight, noise) -focused health (opposed to illness) and nursing (opposed to medicine) -protecting patients WE WILL WRITE …

Theory **A set of statements that describes or explains phenomena in a systematic way** Provide description and explanation of occurrence of phenomena Helps describe, explain, or predict Always subjective, subject to revision Theories are always speculative and never considered to …

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