In this experiment, Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare, Coriandrum sativum, and Petroselinuum crispum were genetically analyzed in order to determine the phylogenetic interrelationships existing between each. DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and DNA analysis were performed in order to determine the genetic distances between the samples, which was then used to determine a phylogenetic tree. The results showed that Anethum graveolens and Foeniculum vulgare were closely related genetically.
Coriandrum sativum was also found to be less related to Petroselinum crispum. Anethum graveolens, however, was found to have a close relationship with all three samples. Introduction: DNA sequencing is a method that was first conceptualized during 1975. This process allows for the analysis of genetic material at a nucleotide level. Such a process can be useful in performing polymerase chain reactions, identification of restriction sites in plasmids and identifying conserved motifs in a particular sequence as well as determining the importance of such motifs in the promoter region.
(Canfield, 1999) DNA sequencing is often conducted after a preliminary process of DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing, also known as dideoxynucleotide sequencing, is a particular method of DNA sequencing. This method involves the use of the following: a denatured single strand of DNA to be sequenced, DNA primers (short pieces of DNA that are both complementary to the strand which is to be sequenced and radioactively labelled at the 5′ end), a mixture of a particular ddNTP (such as ddATP) with its normal dNTP (dATP in this case), and the other three dNTPs (dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP).
(Canfield, 1999) Inferencing phylogenies makes use of the assumption that the data to be analyzed is a series of variables measured across a particular number of taxa. This data can be any of the following: quantified characters, gene frequencies, amino acid sequences, nucleotide sequences and many more. (Felsenstein, 1984) This indicates that one of the more important roles of DNA sequencing is its capability to contribute to phylogenetic studies. Phylogeny can be can be inferred through a careful analysis of DNA sequences.
This has many implications for a numerous number of phylogenetic questions. Even hominid phylogeny has been researched and studied with the use of these procedures (Ruvolo, 1997) The present experiment utilizes the technique of Sanger sequencing in order to determine the genetic distances between Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare, Coriandrum sativum, and Petroselinuum crispum. Genetic distance will be analyzed from the DNA sequences to be acquired from the samples.
This genetic distance will then be utilized to obtain a phylogenetic tree which will indicate the closeness and similarities between the said plant samples. Coirandrum sativum, more commonly known as coriander has been said to have traditional uses as a treatment for diabetes. (Gray, & Flatta, 1999) Petroselinum crispum, more commonly known as parsley, has been linked with pathogen defense-related pathways and may have a use in working against infections.
(Kawalleck, Plesch, Hahlbrock, & Somssich, 1992) Anethum graveolens, more commonly known as dill, may have potential uses against bacterial infections. The oil of the plant may have the strongest antimicrobial properties compared with the other plant samples. (Delaquis, Stanich, Girard, & Mazza, 2002). Foeniculum vulgare, more commonly known as fennel, has also been noted to have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. It is hypothesized that Anethum graveolens will be seen to have a closer relationship between the three other samples.
Also, it is hypothesized that Anethum graveolens will have a significantly close relationship to Foeniculum vulgare. Determining genetic relationships between these specimens may provide a clue to potential uses for the closely related plant samples. The hypothesis generated in this experiment is mostly based on the pre-existing knowledge of the properties of the plants as well as the traditional uses that the different parts of the said plants were utilized for.